Ritual Murder In Kiev Part 2

Ritual Murder In Kiev

Part 2


The newest Talmud research will have to also concern itself with ritual-murder. A study group cannot help but begin with ethnology, in order to put the research on the broadest possible basis. F. W. Ghillany(1), who was silenced by death, already blazed the trail a hundred years ago. If our own historical investigations could be extended in this direction -- of the Talmudists and ethnologists -- this would be their greatest reward.

However, one should not be allowed to forget that for centuries, Jewry itself has taken care to work to "clear things up." Already, in printings of the Talmud of the 15th century, various printers had "left white, empty spots in many passages, in order to avoid as much as possible the chance of attack by non-Jews."(2) Thus the Amsterdam edition of the Talmud appears as "revised" in 1644, and the editions following in the next two centuries have also been still more thoroughly "checked." In Damascus, the former Rabbi Moses Abu-el-Afieh, having converted to Islam, spoke about this on the occasion of the ritual-murder trial in 1840 and said that in the editions of the Talmud which were ntended for Europe, "empty places" were left in the books. At the inquiry of the Court's Chairman, as to what purpose these empty places served, Moses gave the diplomatic response: "In order to fill these up with the names of those (non-Jewish) peoples, and everything that concerns them.(3)

It is extremely informative to discover in this connection that already, in the Trent ritual-murder trial of the year 1475, a colleague of this Rabbi, Samuel, stated that the Italian Jews had nothing "of this" in their books; but probably writings "about it" would be found (376)with the Jews beyond the Ocean(4)! Rohling correctly assumes that these "writings beyond the ocean" were the old, still "uncastrated" copies of the Talmud which still existed in the Orient!

In the course of time the "castrated" Talmud arose, of which Rohling speaks in his writings to the court at Cleves on the occasion of the ritual-murder of Xanten. The omitted passages were immediately handed on orally with utmost care or collected in the private notes of the rabbis. "Jewry earlier omitted passages hostile to Christ or to Christians out of (justified) fear of severe unpleasantness, or substituted harmless- sounding ones, but they orally filled in the omissions (clearly indicated in part by sentence gaps in the printing); or they likewise orally replaced the falsifications in the text with the proper versions again, collected in special writings -- but they never held those alterations to be correct, while Christians have constructed entire doctrinal structures upon the Jewish additions to the text and similar falsifications in the New Testament. Jewry knew and knows that those textual alterations are false and doesn't give a thought to believing in them. . ." (5)

The Jew Horodezky, by the estimation of Bischoff "a meritorious Jewish scholar," and thus a man who had to know, wrote in his book which appeared in Bern in 1920, Religiöse (!) Strömungen im Judentum [Religious Currents in Judaism] (6): "Besides the written literature, they (Hassidic Jews) keep a handed-down oral teaching, into which they do not allow a stranger access. This is passed from the father to the eldest son and has been kept so secret up to the very present, that nothing of it has penetrated into the public [awareness]" Horodezky himself uses the designation "secret teaching" for this oral tradition! In another passage of his book, Horodezky cites the statement of the Rabbi Abraham (377) Abu-laffia (1240): "The traditional teachings are for the fools," said this Rabbi, "the secret teachings are for the clever ones. . ." Furthermore, the former Rabbi Neophyte (Noe Weinjung) speaks in the year 1803 of a secret blood-ritual, knowledge of which is permitted to be passed only from the father to his son.

In the Kurzgefaßten Religions- und Sittenlehre für die israelitische Jugend [Abridged Religious and Moral Teachings for Israelite Youth], revised by Dr. G. Wolf (8th improved edition, Vienna, 1892, Alfred Hölder, "royal and imperial court printing house"), the following portentious sentence is found (p. 15, §6): "Aside from the commandments and laws which the Holy Scripture contains, religion prescribes for us still [other] commandments, which have been passed down from tradition."

On page 83 of the Israelitische Glaubens- und Pflichtenlehre, Leitfaden beim Religionsunterricht der israelitischen Jugend [Israelite Teachings of the Faith and Duty, Manual for Religious Instruction of Israelite Youth] of Leopold Bräuer (5th edition, 1876 -- both books of instruction were registered by the authorities as safe!), it says: "Judaism recognizes, apart from the written law, an oral transmission, still originating from Moses, or tradition, which explains the written law and states the further conditions for these practices. . .All lawful regulations and prescriptions issuing from the Sanhedrin (High Council) were propagated until toward the end of the second century after the beginning of the common chronology [i.e., A.D. or C.E. = Common Era] by practice and oral tradition in the schools, from generation to generation. The writing down of the same was even forbidden, as contrary to law."

How very much has Jewry always feared a serious non-Jewish scientific occupation with its literature of Law (Talmud, Schulchan aruch, etc.), is shown especially graphically by the case of the German scholar Eisenmenger. This Orientalist, who died in 1704 as a University professor in Heidelberg, had studied Judaism and its literature most thoroughly in Amsterdam -- according to the information of Theodor Fritsch(7) he had gone to the Rabbis under the pretext of desiring to convert to Judaism, "since [he said] his studies in the Jewish writings had so much (378) attracted him," asked for instruction in the Jewish religious books, and was actually instructed for several years in the key writings of the Hebrew texts. In 1700, Eisenmenger published -- or rather attempted to publish -- what he had written down of his nearly twenty years of studies conducted with such immense industry, in the two volumes of his Endecktes Judentum [Judaism Discovered]. But hardly had it become known that such a work was being published, when the Notary of the Jewish community at Frankfurt-am-Main, Simon, reported on 22 May 1700, on behalf of the Jewish President of the Community, to the regional Rabbi of Vienna and Chief Imperial Court Factor (!) Simson Wertheimer about this event: "As is being said, a book is supposed to be printed in High German, by the name of Endecktes Judentum, in which without a doubt many slanders (!) to Judaism were allowed into print. Now it is known how easily we Jews can fall into quarrelling, because we Jews have so many enemies at any time. In particular, because the book is supposed to be printed in High German, it's to be feared that great disaster could come out of this. Whether it would be useful that the gentleman in Vienna wanted to present this suitably to reliable friends, in order to prevent this evil. . ."

The first edition of the year 1700, of 2050 copies, which Eisenmenger had printed at his own expense by Joh. Philipp Andrea in Frankfurt a. M., was actually confiscated already on 21 July 1700 by the Kaiser at the behest of the Frankfurt Jews and deposited in the Frankfurt poorhouse, after the author had rejected a Jewish offer of 10,000 Taler for stopping the printing [of the book]. For a payment of 12,000 Ducats, the jews received the "right" of confiscating the "dangerous" book even in private homes, should they find it there! However, after Eisenmenger had died a"a sudden death" in total impoverishment during the trial proceedings with the imperial authorities, King Friedrich I of Prussia let the book be printed anew at his expense in 1711 in Königsberg, where the Kaiser had nothing to say about it; afterwards, this new edition which had come into existence thanks to the generosity of a Prussian king, disappeared but for a few copies, in the well-known mysterious fashion, attained the status of a rarity, and then fell to oblivion(8) -- we recall (379) that these events always repeat themselves when Jewry feels itself struck in its innermost being by publications!

If we nonetheless do not wish to go into the researches of Eisenmenger at this juncture, this is to spare ourselves the objection of basing our work on possibly outdated material!

Here we wish only to emphasize: Jewish laws, viewed from a racial- and religious- psychological perspective, are a truly infernal manifestation of the Jewish spirit, preaching only hatred and ruin toward non-Jews. Regarded from this vantage point, a further expression of the racial soul, which till now was taken much too little note of, conceals the most valuable information: it is the festivals, for in these all the characteristic emotions are made manifest. Indeed, what tones of feeling our German festivals and celebrations hold! An immeasurably rich folk-soul holds sway here, where it believes itself to be most undisturbed and and most private, in its own beauty, simplicity and purity for uncounted generations.

In scarcely imaginable, eternally unbridgeable contrast to this are the Jewish festivals and celebrations: these, too, know only one thing: hatred to the point of extermination, the hatred of the racially and thus spiritually depraved toward all of an elevated or refined character.

In the mythology of all people with a culture, the sun enjoys divine reverence; but it is extremely distinctive that the Jews themselves regard themselves as expressly "moon people." The University Professor S. Passarge, Hamburg, writes as follows in his highly interesting introduction to the Buch vom Kahal [[Book of the Kahal] (9) in relation to the lunar nature of the ghetto Jew: "Just as the moon constantly turns toward men only one side and conceals the other from his gaze, just so many people and organizations have a front side turned to the outer world . . .but the back, on the other hand, corresponds to the true nature of the entity concerned. Such 'moon natures' make the greatest effort (380) to hide their reverse side. On this point they are extremely sensitive and feel themselves threatened in their existence by its revelation. That is easily understandable, for criminals and members of secret societies possess the 'moon nature.' -- "The deeds of the Jews and their morals are not known to the world. People believe they know them, because they've seen their beards. But they have seen nothing other than these beards. Besides, they are still now, as in the Middle Ages, a wandering mystery" wrote Heinrich Heine!

In Xanten the "honest citizen" Buschhoff took delight in bowling with his bowling cronies on the evening after the blood-murder. -- The Jewish girls Caspary and Tuchler in Konitz displayed themselves as "good citizen" dance-lesson daughters, who had the instruction to hold onto the ritual-slaughter victim Winter. -- "Good people" sent a shotgun to the little Andrei in Kiev, but forgot to give him the powder with it, so that they could lure him that way on a determined day. -- "Distinguished" Jews of Damascus were numbered among the "circle of friends" of Father Thomas for decades, the same Jews then butchered him in a back room. . .

Twelve "moons" determine the Jewish year: "You have made the moon, to divide the year according to it" (Psalm 104, 19), and the Jewish festival calendar is also based upon the course of the moon: "according to the moon man reckons his festivals; it is a light that wanes and waxes again" (Sirach 43, 6 etc.).

The festival of the New Moon was still celebrated every month by the Jews of Eisenmenger's times (around 1700); on the occasion of the ritual-murder of Tisza-Eszlár in the year 1882 among other topics being talked about was the fact that the Jews of the remote Theiß village were observed at nocturnal, periodically repeated processions!

On the day before the Day of Atonement (the middle of September), the highest Jewish holiday, according to the testimony of the Jew Berliner the symbolic hen sacrifice (Kapporah) is still performed in a home ceremony during modern times: According to the sex of the [family] member, a rooster or a hen is taken in hand and swung three times around the head [of the person performing the rite], while three times the words are repeated: "Let this be a substitute for me. . .let it go (381) to its death, and may I enter into a long life of good fortune." This ritual custom has the name Kapporah (10). In the Haggah (appendix) to the Schulchan aruch (11) (Orach Chaiyim § 605) Moses Isserles, whose prescriptions still possess normative authority today, according to Bischoff, says the following: "Today the custom is in use in all nations. No one is allowed to change it, for it is has become firmly incorporated. One takes a rooster for every male and a hen for every female person. For a pregnant woman, one takes a hen and a rooster. . ." After being subjected to the Kapporah swing-around three times , the animal is ritually slaughtered following satanic tortures. "It is customary to throw the entrails upon the roof, so that the birds eat them" (Sheftelowitz, p. 34, etc.). -- "One throws the entrails upon the roofs or in the yard, from where the birds are able to bear them away" (Moses Isserles). The ritual-slaughtering forms the core purpose of the ceremony, and therefore the pouring out of the blood of the victim!

According to the testimony of the Syrian Jewess Ben-Noud, in the Jewish families of her native country the Kapporah-hen was tormented with the wings nailed down and in a thousand ways before the ritual-slaughter by long needles, nails, and the like, under horrid curses. Ben-Noud says further: "If they (382) could crucify a non-Jew instead of a rooster, their joy would be all the greater. . .the most timid Jews display the wildest fanaticism on this occasion."(12)

Antonius Margaritha, the son of the Chief Rabbi Margoles of Regensburg, in his book Der gantz Jüdisch glaub [The Complete Jewish Faith], published in 1530, says of this (p. 35), that in the opinion "of old Hassidim," a still more effective sacrifice is made possible if an ape is taken for such a sacrifice, "for the same is most like a human being"; the most effective victim, however -- is the non-Jew himself.

We know that by Jewish notions, every non-Jew -- thus not only every Christian -- is the equivalent of cattle, for according to strict rabbinical concept only the Jew is to be defined as a human being: "The Israelites are more pleasing to God than the angels." -- "The seed of a non-Jew is like that of cattle." -- "Whoever dines with an Uncircumcised man does as if he were eating with a dog; just as the dog is uncircumcised, so also the Foreskinned One (non-Jew)." -- The non-Jews, whose souls come from the unclean spirit, are called swine." -- "One is not permitted to send meat to a non-Jew, rather it is better that it be thrown in front of dogs, because the dog is better than the non-Jew. . ." -- "A strange woman that is not a daughter of Israel, is a piece of cow." Yesaya Hurwitz writes in his work, Die zwei Gesetzestafeln [The Two Tablets of the Law] (Wilmersdorf, 1686, page 250b, cited by E. Bischoff): "Although the non-Jews have the same corporeal structure as the Jews, they resemble them only like an ape does a human being. . ."

The Purim and the Pessach festivals were already considered at the beginning [of this book]. The Purim festival, which memorializes the treacherous slaughter of countless Persians committed in the kingdom of the degenerate King Xerxes (485/465 B.C., biblical name Ahasverus), who had succumbed to total Jewish influence, falls about 14 February (14 Adar). On this day the Book of Esther is read, which we know, of course, was presented in a glorious edition to the Chief Jew Crémieux, who had set free the murderers of (383) Father Thomas, ritually slaughtered on this Purim festival in Damascus!

The curses of the Purim festival stretch out in monotonous repetition to the start of the Jewish Easter (Pessach) [Passover] "festival" on 15 Nisan (about 28 March), which lasts a full eight days and signifies the downright satanic heightening of Jewish hatred in commemoration of the affliction of Egypt. -- Neophyte, former Rabbi, in his work which appeared under the title: Il sangue cristiano nei riti ebraici delle moderna Sinagoga [Christian Blood in Hebrew Rites of Modern Synagogues] in 1883 at Prato, said: "The Jews are most satisfied when they are able to kill children, for children are virginal and innocent. . .they ritually slaughter them in the days of Passover. . ." Actually, the overwhelming majority of victims, as we have been able to determine, are children!

Hatred unto death -- it is that hatred, according to the Jewish idea, as it has been trumpeted forth to the Jews down from Sinai against all non-Jews, it is the "quietly smoldering hatred imbibed with mother's milk, which is taught and nourished in the ghetto and the synagogues" (Neophyte-Weinjung, cited by Athanasius Fern, page 17) and has been precipitated out not only as an essential component of perhaps a minority within Judaism!

"The mass of modern Jewry in its hatred against the non-Jews today is just as blind and ruthless as were the Old Testament Hebrews, striding with dry feet across the Red Sea; the Orthodox Jew of the 19th century is even today still the same, filled with fanatic bigotry, a weird being soaked in hatred of everything non-Jewish, just as was the Talmud-Jew of the Middle Ages who was burned to ashes at the stake . . ." (13)

But all the hate-songs of the Jewish festivals belong, in the final analysis, to that "great Jewish hatred" which Cheskel Zwi-Klötzel adorned in the following classic words in the Janus(14): ". . .Just as we Jews know of any non-Jew, that he somewhere in a corner of his heart is an anti-Semite and must be (384) one, so is every Jew, in the deepest foundation of his being, a hater of every non-Jew. I well prevent myself from saying 'anti-Christian,' or something similar, for perhaps our hatred is mildest toward Christianity, because in the Christianity of today we need not see a foe(15).

Whoever among us is not spiritually and intellectually castrated, whoever isn't too impotent to hate, he shares this hatred! Let it be gladly admitted that it goes against the grain of many a man, but that is only a proof for the vital potency of this hatred! I am not authorized to speak in the name of Judaism; perhaps I have never exchanged a word with Jews over just these things; but this custody [of words] is of purely legalistic form, in reality there is nothing as alive in me as the conviction of this, that if there is anything at all which unifies all Jews of the World, it is this great sublime hatred. I believe I must do without tracing out any sort of scientific basis, perhaps of an historical or psychological nature. I feel this hatred, this hatred against something impersonal, intangible, as a portion of my nature that has ripened in me, for whose growth and for whose development I must call a natural law responsible. And for that reason it seems shameless to be ashamed of this hatred, as a part of nature, and base and mean, to hide it. . .

No one can question the fact that a strong Jewry is a danger for everything that is non-Jewish. All attempts of certain Jewish circles to prove the contrary must be (385) described as cowardly as they are comical. And as doubly deceitful as cowardly and comical!

The reproach was made to the Jews of the Middle Ages, that they drew all gold to themselves and did not give it back out again. Of course one could help oneself easily -- with violence. The Jews of the present are doing exactly the same thing with spiritual gold, we shall see whether it is possible for Germany to take it away from them. Whether we have the power or not, that is the single question which interests us, and for that reason we must strive to be and to remain a power. . .

Jewry can only be overcome spiritually! Become strong in non-Jewry, stronger than we are in Jewry, and you shall remain the victor!"

Now one must beware of positing hatred as the sole foundation of ritual-murder. We are thoroughly aware that it may require the research labor of entire generations to find an unambiguous, satisfying solution. To a much stronger degree than till now, for example, Jewish philosophy must be taken into account; Johann von Leers has performed the service of having made the research of ritual-murder aware of this path, in that he points to the work of the Jew Oskar Goldberg(16). Yet before we accept these attempts at interpretation, which perhaps will assist in guiding [us to] the solution of the whole problem, it is necessary once again to summarize, step by step, the results attained up to now under definite perspectives.

As has emerged from the collected historical evidence, the Jewish blood-laws find their application first and foremost during the Purim and Pessach revenge-festivals, without our wishing to say thereby that they were not applied at other times of the year!

It is striking that in the places at which the blood-toll was imposed, (386) a large number of foreign Jews surfaces before the blood-murder, as if these had received secret instructions to be present at the performance of the ritual-slaughter as representatives of other Jewish communities.

At the ritual-crime of Lincoln of the year 1255, a ramified murder-organization is already recognizable; the strands extend to London -- a generation later all the Jews of England had to be arrested due to other crimes! In more recent days these connections allow themselves to be more acutely recognized. On the evening before the Jewish "Atonement" holiday of 1875, numerous foreign Jews, among them a ritual-slaughterer, had arrived in Zboró (Hungary) in order to seize the already decided-upon victim; in 1877, on the occasion of the double ritual-murder of Szalacs (Hungary), according to the statement of a coachman not fewer than 40 Jews from abroad arrived, and in Tisza-Eszlár, whose Jewish population already consisted of perhaps a seventh of the total, the crowd of foreign Jews was nevertheless conspicuous when Esther Solymosi had disappeared. Likewise, in 1895 in Hungary, a girl, the small Juliska, was ritually-slaughtered; on this day (6 September) three wagon loads of Jews, among them a schächter, arrived! On the evening after the vanishment of the boy Cybulla in Skurz, on 21 January 1884, numerous foreign Jews assembled in the presence of the manager, where then the whole night through a striking level of goings-on prevailed. In Polna the murder gang found a hiding place with the Rabbi and in the Jewish school -- already there was reference to the role of the "limping" Jew! Konitz was teeming with Jews when Ernst Winter was ritually-slaughtered. Six foreign schächter had arrived, but in front of the house of a Jewish resident, ten foreign Jews, probably cult officials, were noticed, and the station assistant of Konitz later stated under oath that there had never been so many Jews to arrive in the place, as around the time of the murder of Winter. -- A conversation of the Rabbi Kellermann had been overheard: ". . .that so many devils are crawling around here?" -- ". . .that of course nothing will get out. . ." At the time of the fair of Lobsen, on 31 March (!) 1913, when the small Kador disappeared, a large number of mostly Polish-speaking Jews had turned up in the near vicinity, and in (387) Kiev, the remote property of the Zaitsev brickyard, which was occupied only by a few families, offered a simply ideal place of concealment.

In almost all cases, the victim is surveiled and selected in accordance with a plan. In Tisza-Eszlár they thought to have especially free rein when the "lot" was tossed upon the child of a widow living in the most penurious conditions. In Corfu the foster child of the Jew Chaim Sarda, the little Maria Desylla, had never been entered into the Register, and if her kidnapping had not been noticed, she could have been eliminated without attracting much attention. In the same year in Xanten, a stunningly beautiful boy, Johann Hegmann, fell into the net -- he was lured into a Jewish store! In Polna the vagabond Hilsner chased after both his victims for a long time in pursuit of the instructions of his taskmasters in Prague or Vienna; Agnes Hruza, moreover, was visited and "given the once over" in her living quarters in Wieschnitz shortly before her death by unknown Jews. Ernst Winter was surveiled by his Jewish dance class acquaintances in Konitz; this victim therefore also seemed particularly suitable, since the parents lived outside the area and could not immediately order inquiries made. Young people working as servants, who no longer were able to live with their parents were in especial danger -- we recall the victims about whom Géza v. Ónody and Theodor Fritsch reported! The "lot" finally fell to the little Andrusha in Kiev, who in order to procure the still missing powder for the gun presented to him by Jews, ran into the clutches of his slaughterers.

The ritual-slaughter act, performed according to an exactly defined rite, is supposed to occur -- as the act of sacrifice -- before the eyes of all Jews "invited" to it, according to Rohling(17); thus, according to the testimony of the young Scharf, during the ritual-slaughtering of Esther Solymosi, the Tisza-Eszlár synagogue was nearly filled up with foreign Jews, when the girl was led to sacrifice by the beggar-Jew Wollner ("and when she refused, he seized her by the (388) hand and led her out of our apartment")! In Konitz the worker Masloff heard the din of voices of numerous people and in between a gurgling sound at the murder-cellar of the Levy property during the slaughtering of the gymnasium student; in the building of the Jewish Zaitsev brickyard in Kiev, numerous Jews were already living there already days before the blood-murder, among them the representative of the schächter-dynasty and Zaddik ("holy man") Faivel Schneerson, "at the naming of whom the accused Beilis wiped the sweat from his brow." The slaughter was in all probability carried out in the shed, which then later suddenly went up in flames during the machinery of investigation, which was put into suspiciously slow operation. Father Thomas and his servant bled to death within view of the heads-of-family who had come together in Damascus for the celebration of the Purim festival. -- there were seven, but the number seven has a "holy" character for the Jews! At the horrific, in its details scarcely to be described torture and slaughter of the three-year-old Ivanov in Welish (1883), a half-hundred Polish Jews were present. At the house of the Head Rabbi Copinus in Lincoln, the executioners of the eight-year-old victim formed a "Justice Court" in 1255 and gloated over the inhuman tortures. The small Andreas Oxner, "Anderl von Rinn," was likewise layed upon a sacrifice-stone and bled to death in the presence of the Jews who stood around him. In 1529 at Bösing, the Jews were "invited" to be present at the ritual-slaughter of a nine-year-old child -- "and then each one of the Jews stabbed the little child for a while". . .in 1540 Jewish dealers stood around the boy Michael Pisenharter from Sappenfeld who had been bound to a pillar and flayed. In 1598 a four-year-old child was ritually slaughtered in a Podolia village, at which the "leading" Jews of the region were present. . .During the horrible "sacrifice" of little Simon of Trent in the house of the Rabbi Samuel, according to the Jew Angelus ("Angel") "all the Jews stood around the child, who was stretched out upon a board placed above a small container."

The society of the sacrificers is supposed to consist only of reliable people, who see something sacred in the act (389) and -- can keep their mouths shut! For this reason, women, youths, and children are not supposed to be drawn into the actual act of slaughter. In the year 1452 the adolescent son of a Jewish physician had been present at the slaughter of a two-year-old child and had even enjoyed some of the fruits which had been dipped in the blood of the victim: "and for him it was as if his intestines wanted to be heaved out of him. . ." Throughout the years this picture of horror pursued him, until he made a complete confession and converted to Christianity (18). In Easter time of 1540 a Jewish child reported about the torture of little Michael: "This dog howled for three days long. . ." The five-year-old son of the Jew Abraham blabbed out to a shocked court about the death of Andreas Takáls. The offspring of the temple servant Scharf in Tisza-Eszlár threw the Jewish stage- direction into confusion! Through the keyhole of the synagogue, Moritz Scharf had seen and was so stunned by the sight, that he broke down and before the examining judge Bary, gave to the protocol a comprehensive report, and a Konitz Jewess wrote that letter in which, in contrast to her racial comrades, she maintained that this indeed was murder!

"And your death shall be with a blocking of your mouth like a beast, that dies and has not voice or speech." Gruesome tortures precede the actual slaughtering. In the Trent ritual-murder trial of 1475, the Rabbi Samuel testified that it is necessary that the victim give up the ghost while being tortured; otherwise the blood is no good! (Est necesse, quod ille puer moriatur in tormentis; aliter ille sanguis non est bonus.) [It is necessary that that boy should expire in torment; else that blood is not good.] In this case the victim, "ille puer," the boy Simon, was stabbed with needles and portions of his flesh were ripped away with tongs while he was fully conscious, at which [events] they spoke and sang in Hebrew: "So may all the enemies of Israel be destroyed. . ."

We do not wish to let those images of the horror arise again: the stabbed and cut up body of the victim resembled, for the most part, (390) a single wound -- "and the entire body so badly abused, that itself it seemed to be one entire wound. . ." : On the body of the seven-year-old Simon Kierelis, tortured to death in Vilna in 1592, over 170 wounds were counted -- aside from the many piercing wounds which Jewish executioners had inflicted upon him under the nails of his fingers and toes; the corpse of a five-year-old boy, discovered in 1826 on a highway near Warsaw, showed over 100 wounds as signs of the withdrawal of blood. . .

The victims have often been sexually abused, such as Ludwig van Bruck, in 1429; Szydlov in 1597; Andreas Takáls in 1791; even this is to be understood as a symbolic act.

Then the schächter gets to work; in his capacity as designated Jewish cult official, he reads out a prayer of praise, part of it before and part of it following his "holy act," in which he promises sacred silence and vows to God to that he will perform (19) the same act -- daily, if he can.

In most cases, as for example in Damascus (1840), the act of slaughter occurs approximately at sundown; it is the time for which (Exodus 12: 6) the slaughtering of the "Paschal lambs" is prescribed. . .

In Kiev Faivel Schneerson surfaced, and in Polna Hilsner himself performed the slaughter in both ritual-murders after the ritual-slaughter knife had been delivered to him from outside the area; the so-called "crooked" Jew, that Galician monster who then surfaced again a year later in Konitz, would probably not have been one of the lower cult officials, such as a precentor (cantor), schächter (schochet) [ritual-slaughterer; the second term, schochet, is Hebrew], or circumciser (mohel), but rather, to judge by the fearful anxiety with which [making] further statements about his person was avoided, and the deference shown to him, a very highly-placed "personality" who had been sent for the supervision of the ritual and who possibly was in contact with those Hassidic "holy men" to which group the Schneersons also belonged. -- The witness Marie Pernicek, who had given her evidence concerning these Jews to the protocol, (391) was poisoned (20). In Damascus, the Rabbi Moses Abu-el-Afieh had been present at both ritual killings, and the Károlyer Rabbi was consulted for the nocturnal ritual-slaughter of Andreas Takáls in 1791. The Jews retreating through the Inn Valley in 1462 had brought along a rabbi, and the ritual slaying of Simon of Trent in 1475 and of Hugh of Lincoln in 1255 were performed in the houses of rabbis. Even these few examples suffice to show that at all times the ritual act of slaughter was and is most carefully supervised.

Often, the schächter of the surrounding area arrive at the place of slaughter together; in Konitz, for example, it was proven that not fewer than six outside ritual-slaughterers appeared at the time of the blood-murder of Winter; in the case of Damascus, where apparently a schächter was not immediately reachable, the Jewish barber was sent for! In Tisza-Eszlár, an eyewitness, the young Scharf, likewise discovered several schächter had appeared from the surrounding area.

A man who, in his native Hungary, had come to know this murder pestilence in all its manifestations, the Knight Georg von Marcziányi, wrote the following about the Jewish ritual-slaughterers: "Despite all of the enlightenment and all the humanitarianism-pap of the 19th century, which has become a very effective slogan for a millennium of superstition and fanatic religious hatred, so that it has darkened the progressive spirit of the times with its kosher prejudice, like spider webs obscure with their network of threads the window nooks of seedy apartments, the Jewish ritual-slaughterer has remained a ritual-slaughterer: a traditional creature from out of gray antiquity, with long peyes [earlocks, which Orthodox and particularly Hassidic Jews believe to be prescribed by Mosaic Law], grease-dripping kaftans, and full of the most bigoted superstition." (21)

The circular cut of ritual-slaughter carves the tissues of the neck down to the cervical vertebrae and simultaneously the large neck vessels which lead to the brain, exactly in the same way that the Jewish ritual-slaughterers of cattle still to this day slaughter the (392) unstunned beast. The non-Jew, too, is of course merely an animal, which receives its ritual consecration only through the fact that it is offered to Yahweh as a pleasing sacrifice! "In order to execute the act of ritual-slaughter," says the Jewish medical officer Dammann in his Gutachten über das jüdische Schlachtverfahren [Expert Opinion Concerning the Jewish Procedure of Ritual-Slaughter] (Hanover, 1886), "the schächter stretches the skin of the neck with his left hand and quickly makes a cut somewhat below the larynx, through the tissues of the neck with the razor-sharp knife held in his right hand -- so deeply, that he penetrates to the vertebral bones. By the same (cut), the skin, the windpipe, the esophagus (gullet), the veins and arteries, as well as the nerve trunks which accompany these large vessels, are completely severed. In the beginning, the blood streams out massively from the opened vessels, then gradually more sparsely. . ." Dr. Steiner, as an example, who as the chief doctor saw the body of little Hegmann in Xanten on the evening of 29 June 1891, was convinced "that was a very sharp, large instrument with which the crime must have been done," since all parts of the neck down to the cervical vertebrae had been cut through.

In the Polna ritual-murder trial of 1899, according to the existing protocols, the court physician Dr. Prokes in Kuttenberg determined that the ritual-slaughter cut could have been performed only by an expert hand and only with a long, sturdy, and very sharp instrument which left behind completely smooth wound edges and thrust down to the cervical spine. The second forensic expert witness, Dr. Michalek, reached the same conclusion.

This method of killing makes possible a complete running out of the blood from all blood vessels, since the heart still continues to keep the blood moving even after the neck is cut: the blood is, so to speak, pumped out of the body through the opened arteries until death by exsanguination intervenes. While the autopsy of those who died [as victims] in the usual types of murder cases yield the finding that the blood in the blood vessels is still present aside from that which ran out directly through the fatal wounds, the bodies and/or body parts of the victims who bled to death under the ritual-slaughter knife show themselves to be absolutely empty of blood! As we have seen, this evidence, confirmed by plentiful, strictly objective medical expert opinions in many centuries, stands unshakably firm (393) and can in no way be impaired or reduced in its significance: to the murderers, what matters is gaining the blood of their victims, without, insofar as it is possible, leaving any behind. The blood flowing out is caught as carefully as possible; thus, at the scene of the slaughter of Agnes Hruza in the Brezina Woods at Polna, only the most insignificant traces of blood -- spatters -- were to be discovered, according to official findings. The traces of blood in the barn at Xanten proved to be merely traces of secondary blood from the child's body having been dragged there. The blood of Esther Solymosi, according to the testimony of the young Scharf, flowed at first into an earthenware plate (more probably a bowl), which then was emptied into a saucepan; the blood of Father Thomas was caught in a large bowl "without there having been a drop lost" (protocol statement of the barber Soliman). The blood of the servant, Ibrahim Amara, was poured into a large white bottle from out of a copper bowl by means of a tin funnel (testimony of Murad-el-Fattal). The blood of the small Simon of Trent filled "one and a half pots" (unam scutellam cum dimidio). In the year 1235, on Christmas Day, Jews of Fulda collected the blood of the five (!) children of a miller in prepared pouches; in 1267 the ritual-slaughter victim, a little girl, was layed upon linen which had been folded over several times and, according to the same collection of documents, her blood was caught up by the bedding (Aronius). In 1452 the blood of a two-year-old child killed at Savona flowed into ritual containers, like the blood of the ritually-slaughtered "Anderl of Rinn" in 1462. The blood of the nine-year-old Maißlinger, tortured to death in Bösing on Ascension Day of 1529, was sucked out from the body by means of quills and small "Röhrle" [tubes] and collected into bottles. Likewise collected in bottles was the blood of the three-and-a-half-year-old Russian nobleman's son, who had bled to death on Good Friday 1753 in the vicinity of Kiev under [the knife of] his schächter. . .The Jewess Ben-Noud found a large brass vase in the house of relatives, "which the Arabs call a laghen," totally filled with blood after she had noticed a short time before the bodies of two ritually-killed boys hanging on the roof! -- And these few examples can be multiplied.

According to Lyutostansky, (Die Juden in Rußland [The Jews in Russia]), the Polish Jews also employed so-called rolling barrels in order to obtain the blood of their (394) victims. This will always have been the case when no Schächter was available. The victims, mostly children, were tied up and then rolled back and forth for a long time in barrels which were densely outfitted with nails, knives, and other sharp objects, until the completely cut and pierced body had given all its blood. This procedure was also generally known in the Orient and was never requited!

For Germany, we can detect one case where Jews employed this procedure: it was the Breslau child-murder of the year 1453(22).

It has to be striking that the Jewish murderers, who otherwise acted so shrewdly, did not, in one single case in all these centuries, get rid of or hide the bodies of their ritually-slaughtered victims so that there were no remains, be it by burying or burning, so as to erase the traces of the crime, but on the contrary, disregarding any precautionary measures, they did not trouble themselves further, and indeed, actually put them on public display! At most, they sunk the bodies in swamps, canals, lakes, or in the sea. Thus a stabbed and cut child's body was discovered in 1244 at the cemetary of St. Benedict in London, and in 1247 the cut-to-pieces body, empty of blood, of the two-year-old Meilla was thrown into the city ditch of Valréas. The abused body of the schoolboy Conrad was found in a Thuringia vineyard in 1303; in 1503, D. Johann Eck saw near Freiburg the child's body which had been discovered "in the woods"; a peasant woman found the little Maißlinger among thorn hedges in 1529, and in 1590 and 1592 ritually-slaughtered children's bodies were come upon, lying in the open, in the small town of Szydlow and in Vilna; in 1744, a father found his abused and ritually-slaughtered child lying on a tree trunk in the Kaltener forest at Eppan (Tyrol). In 1826 a boy's body, drained of blood and disfigured, was lying on a highway near Warsaw. The corpses of the Hungarian Szabó children were squeezed into the box of a fire engine in 1877. The mutilated body of Franziska Mnich (1881) had been hurled into a forest ravine! Thrown into wells (395) were, for example, the bodies of the victims in Lincoln (in 1255), Überlingen (Baden, 1332), Damascus (in 1890), Kaschau (1891). The bodies of Father Thomas and of his servant were dismembered and tossed into a sewage canal of the Jewish Quarter; the young Hungarian woman Sipos was pulled out of the Türr-Canal in 1879; the dismembered corpse of the boy Cybulla in Skurz was found under a bridge outside of the village, after the schächter Josephson had been observed there in the gray of morning with a heavy sack on his back; the body of the little Johann Hegmann was layed upon the hay of a barn in Xanten so challengingly, that anyone who walked through the barn door absolutely had to come across it! In Corfu the mutilated body of Maria Desylla was set down in a hallway. The corpse of Marie Klima, discovered in the Brezina Woods, and of Agnes Hruza, were covered only superficially with brushwood, in the direct vicinity of a heavily used path. The torso of the gymnasium student Winter was sunk in a city rinse basin; other body parts were found scattered all across the entire area of the city! The mutilated corpse of Helene Brix disappeared into the Neuendorfer Lake in 1910 near Stettin, and in 1911 the empty-of-blood body of Olga Hagel was pulled from the Breitensteiner Lake (West Prussia); in 1912 someone stumbled upon the blood-emptied body of the merchant's apprentice Stanislaus Musial in front of a house in Posen in the early morning hours of the first day of the Pentecost holidays; the dismembered and blood-empty corpse of the twelve-year-old Elma Kelchner was stuffed in a sack and set down upon open land in Ludwigshafen, and in 1911 the cut-up and blood-drained body of the little Andrusha had been displayed, so to say, publicly in a clay pit in Kiev: "The body was not hidden, but on the contrary, to a certain degree publicly displayed, as if they wanted to say: here, see, we have the power! We will prove it to you! Who dares to come up against us? We are all-powerful. . ."(23)

In his day, a Masaryk believed that the circumstance that the body of Agnes Hruza, for example, was only superficially concealed, (396) had to be interpreted as proof of Jewish innocence. In the year 1900 he wrote as a representative of the European Intelligentsia as follows about this: "And finally, it must be once again and urgently emphasized: the body of Agnes Hruza was not in the least concealed, on the contrary, it was downright obtrusively, so to speak, put on display. Secret ritual-murderers could never have dealt with their victim in this way; I repeat, the place where the body was discovered was clearly so selected with the intention that the murder could be ascribed to perpetrators from Polna. The covering of the body with four flimsy spruce branches originated quite obviously more from the need of a certain piety, than the aim of hiding the body . . .(24) But Theodor Fritsch correctly assumed in this connection that here, too, ritual-symbolic motives were at work. Actually, in the year 1598 -- which could not have been known to Fritsch -- in a Polish ritual-murder trial on the occasion of the blood-murder of Woznik in the Podolia province, to which a four-year-old child of a peasant from Smirzanóv fell victim, a Rabbi explained at his interrogation that Jews are not allowed in any instance to bury one of the goyim, because they would thereby pollute themselves by this act and burden themselves with a deadly sin(25).

The final and most important question, which concerns the use of the blood, has often been answered in a totally distorted and superficial manner. According to our findings up to this point, to begin with, a symbolic act of sacrifice will also have to be the basis for the ritual use of the blood.

In 1247(26) the Jews in the little city of Valréas, which belongs to what is now the Department of Vaucluse, took the blood from a two-year-old girl-child with horrific accompanying mutilations, after they had nailed her to a cross, on 26 March, which was the Tuesday of Easter week. Thanks to an energetic capture, some of the Jews of this province could be convicted. The Jew Burcellas, when asked what they wanted to do with the blood, confessed (397) "that in olden times the High Priest had sprinkled the blood of a bull upon the altar"; the Jew Lucius added to this, that, if a child had been obtained, they would want to make from the blood a sacrifice, so to speak (quasi sacrificium), and that they would be obligated to send some of the blood to other Jews, and that the child actually was supposed to have been crucified on Good Friday, but they had not been able to keep it hidden that long and because of this they killed it during the night on Wednesday. The words that appear in the interrogation protocol, quasi sacrificium, Lucius explained by the additional statement that the Jews were not able to produce a real sacrifice, because they no longer had a temple. According to Lucius, the symbolic sacrifice of a non-Jew = cattle, enters the picture, whose blood is "sent on" to others, i.e., to Jews not living in the region, so as to allow these to participate directly, so to speak, in the sacrifice! "For, though Yahweh took our temple away from us, he nevertheless has left us a substitute for it, which enlightens the soul still more, namely the shedding of the blood of the goyim onto a dry stone before the face of Yahweh."(27) Thomas Cantipratanus (named from the cloister Cantimpré at Cambrai, died around 1263), living around the same time, answered the question of why the Jews have to shed Christian blood each year, as follows(28): "It is, you see, quite certain, that they cast lots each year in every province, as to which community or city is supposed to furnish the other communities with Christian blood. . ." It is obvious, that H. L. Strack had himself a very delicate task in devaluating this and further historical evidence to the favor of the Jews.

At the Trent ritual-murder trial of 1475, a Jew living in Feltre, who later converted to Christianity (Johannes Christianus de Feltro), swore that his father, in days gone by, had been a schächter in a city in Germany and had told him that 40 years ago the Jews of Landshut, where his father had then been living, murdered a Christian boy with the aim of getting possession of his blood. On the first day of Easter (398), before the evening meal, his father regularly mixed some drops of blood in a glass of wine and, with gruesome curses, sprinkled the table with it. He knew this from his own experience [he said] but this occurred always in the greatest secrecy.

Athanasius Fern(29) describes this ceremony as follows: "The Paterfamilias pours some drops of the fresh, or a substance of powdered, blood into a glass, dips the finger of his left hand in and besprinkles ('blesses') everything that is on the table with it: 'therefore, we ask Yahweh, that he might send the ten plagues to all enemies of the Jewish faith.' At this, they dine, and the father of the family intones at the end of the meal: 'Therefore (like the child, whose blood the bread and wine contain) may all goyim go down to destruction!'" Purim and Easter wine are especially valuable when they contain the blood of non-Jews: Thus, as these are consumed, Yahweh might consume, exterminate, "devour" all that is non-Jewish! "You shall devour all the peoples, whom the Lord your God gives unto you, and let not thine eye look upon them with mercy" (Deuteronomy 7: 16). . ."For we shall devour them like bread" (Numbers 14: 9).

The Trent ritual-murderers were -- as is known -- questioned separately. Israel, the son of the Rabbi Samuel, in whose house the synagogue was located, confessed as chief witness that various Jews had complained that this time they were not able to bake any Easter bread (sacrificial meal), since none of them had blood from non-Jews in stock. In answer to the question as to for what the blood was necessary, Israel replied: "that their faith teaches them that they would smell bad if they did not include Christian blood in the Easter bread." This "bad smell" is, in this case -- and, to be sure, only in this case -- to be taken figuratively, since, according to Israel, "the Rabbis want to express by this, that the Jew who does not use Christian blood offends against the Law". . .To the question, what meaning inheres in the enjoyment of this blood, and why the Jews eat it in Easter bread, Israel relied: "that this symbolizes a commemoration of that blood, of which Yahweh spoke to Moses, when he commanded him, during the time when the Jews were in the captivity of Pharaoh, to sprinkle the thresholds of their houses with blood. . ."

(399) The judges also wished to know how much blood was taken from the victim. Israel answered: "One and a half pots full." The blood tapped from the boy Simon was supposed to be distributed among the co-religionists in other lands.

The remaining accused confirmed and/or supplemented this exposition. The Jew Angelus knew that non-Jewish blood also was employed for staunching the bleeding at circumcision. The Master Joseph, [he said] who lives in Riva and has circumcised his sons, has constantly been supplied with non-Jewish blood. But once he did not have any, so as a "substitute" a dark red, liquid tree resin, which has the name "dragon blood" (sanguis draconis) was used. H.L. Strack also heard a rumor of the use of this "dragon blood," which he determined on further inquiry to be resin from a kind of palm tree native to Farther India, and, with relief, grasped at the existence of this (note well!) substitute remedy in his "expert opinion" given for the release of the ritual-murderers at the ritual-murder trial of Tisza-Eszlár, in which he writes: "Also, ignorance of the dragon blood used for the healing of the wound of circumcision, has given rise to the formation of the erroneous opinion that the Jews need Christian blood." (30) In such a way were "expert opinions" rendered, although Strack was very well acquainted with the Trent evidence!

The old Samuel, the proprietor of the murder-house, determines the age of a ritual-slaughter victim as follows: ". . .it is better if the child to be slaughtered is not more than seven years old. . .a girl-child is only suitable for sacrifice if she is a virgin . . ." The forensic medical autopsy of Agnes Hruza had yielded the fact that the victim had remained unmolested. . .

Asked about the time of slaughter, Samuel explained: "The victim can be killed at any time, but it is more pleasing to God (Yahweh!) if this occurs shortly before Easter. [He said that] he did not learn this from the Scriptures, but heard it from Master David Springer, who had taught at Bamberg and Nuremberg. . ." Here the Rabbi Samuel produced an additional (400) proof for our above-mentioned exposition that the compromising ritual-slaughter prescriptions are passed down orally.

The eldest male of the Jewish community, Moses, an eighty-year-old gray-beard, who had lived in Germany earlier and had come to Trent from there, told that, among the Jews, he who uses the most Christian blood also enjoys the most esteem (ille judeus magis laudatur, qui plus utitur de sanguine pueri christiani). Asked for his further expositions and to go into details about the use of the blood, about which he would know all, Moses answered still more clearly than the Rabbi Samuel: "Concerning these things, no written laws exist, but the rabbis and the scholars teach us, and this teaching is transmitted by means of tradition, from generation to generation"

In 1494 at Tyrnau in Hungary, several Jews arrested due to a ritual-crime were questioned by the then Palatine and Lord of the highest court, Stefan v. Zápolya. An old Rabbi, on being questioned as to what, then, had actually been the cause of the murdering of an innocent child, gave as a fourth reason the explanation that, according to an old, secret commandment of the religion, the Jewish community was admonished to slaughter a non-Jew every year, by a sort of casting of lots, in order to procure his blood(31)!

The proceedings against the Jewish ritual-murderers in Damascus, under the chairmanship of the French Consul, take place 365 years after the Trent trial, and here likewise, the evidence given to the protocol is totally congruent in content with that given over a third of a millennium before at Trent -- there is not a more conclusive historical proof for the effectiveness of Jewish ritual-slaughter instructions and their ritual expositions having lasted for centuries.

Paul Nathan, in his book about Tisza-Eszlár, is not at a loss for an "explanation," even in the face of this evidentiary material; he brazenly and cheekily claims that the statements of their unfortunate co-religionists in Trent "tortured out" of them at the time, were "suggested" to the "accused" Jews in Damascus by the (401) "devilish" methods of the French Consul -- but the Jewish hack leaves it up to his European Intelligentsia to explain, how, of all people, a Consul sitting in Damascus could have knowledge of the then still-missing court documents, composed in the judicial Latin of the Middle Ages! The Jewish barber Soliman, answered the question of the French Consul Ratti-Menton, what was done with the blood of the murdered Father: "It was needed for the festival of the unleavened bread." The Pasha put the same question to Isaak Harari; this man replied after various evasions: "We have slain him in order to get his blood, and indeed, out of reasons of religion, for we had need of the blood for the fulfillment of a religious duty . . .We put it in the unleavened bread!" -- Aaron Harari confirmed this! The Rabbi Moses Abu-el-Afieh stated to the protocol: "The blood is for the unleavened bread; on the day, where they are baked, the Great Rabbi (in this case Jacob Antabli) stays standing in front of the baking oven. The Pious Ones (=Jews) send him meal out of which he makes bread, which he himself kneads and works in the blood. . .Then he sends the bread to the Pious Ones. . ." These breads were then sent on to Baghdad! Rabbi Moses further reported: "They were all at the slaughtering and were joyful, since it was a matter of performing a religious act. . .It is a secret of the Great Rabbi, which ones are entrusted with the how and what of using the blood."

The same statements were then given to the protocol also about the obtaining and use of the blood of the murdered servant, Ibrahim Amara.

But one member of the panel, the Greek merchant Chebeli, was not yet satisfied with the explanations of this Rabbi, he had discovered an obvious contradiction and put the following additional question: "You say that human blood serves for the celebration of the festival of the unleavened bread, yet it is known that according to the Jewish religion, blood is regarded as being "unclean," so that even if it were the blood of an animal, the Jews are not permitted to use such. There's also a contradiction in the property "unclean," which is imputed to the blood, and to the (402) use of the blood in the unleavened bread (matzos) -- give us the explanation!"

The Rabbi Moses replied: "The Talmud says that two kinds of blood are pleasing to Yahweh: the blood of Easter and that of circumcision. . .This is the secret of the Great Rabbis, who are knowledgeable about the ways and means of using the blood . . ." The Head Rabbi Antabli, asked about his opinion in connection with this, confirmed these statements in full scope.

In the trial of Valréas (in 1247), the fact came out for the first time that the Jews are obligated to send on human sacrificial blood. Strack, in this case, too, would have been immediately ready with the "exonerating" retort that certainly no ritual, but rather, at most, a "folk-medicinal" significance, not to be taken seriously, would fit this [evidence]! Typically, Strack keeps silent about what came out in the Trent trial concerning these matters, and diverts attention to the "document excerpts" of the Jew Moritz Stern, his colleague.

In Trent, the Jew Israel, the son of Samuel, told that shortly before the Jewish Easter festival, several Jews had met in the synagogue located in his father's house and had complained over the fact that this time no Easter bread could be made, since no one had any supply of Christian blood (quia nemo habebat de sanguine pueri christiani). The examining judges "smelled a rat" and did not let loose of it, and after a time inquired further with the precise question: "What did the Trent Jews do earlier, when they had need of Christian blood?" Israel, driven into a corner, answered: "Approximately four years ago, he had seen a glass in his father's hand, which contained desiccated blood. This his father had obtained, according to his own statement, from a Jew who had come from Germany."

Now the Rabbi Samuel, to whom these statements were read out, resigned himself to [making the] confession that perhaps four years ago he had bought "for a costly sum" a bottle, about a hand's breadth long, from a Jew of the name of Bär (Ursus), who had come from Saxony, (403) and who had had a certificate of verification with him by which it was certified that Bär was conducting his business (!) legally, and that the goods that he was carrying with him were genuine. In this certificate of verification (literas legalitalis) it was written in Hebrew that what he had with him was proper! It was signed by "Moses de Saxonia, Head Rabbi of the Jews." Bär carried the blood, present in pulverized condition, in an interior, tin-plated vessel sealed with white wax. In the layer of wax the Hebrew words were incised: "Moses, Head Rabbi of the Jews." Samuel, as he added to it, then set his name under it: "Samuel of Trent," to make known that he, for his part, joined the attested record concerning the reliability of the dealer. One other Jew, Engel (Angelus), confessed in Trent that he had bought the dry blood of a non-Jewish boy in the size of a bean more than four years ago, for four Lire of good coins from a certain Isaak from the Netherlands, out of the bishopric of Cologne; Isaak had carried with him the container of blood wrapped in a cloth, the blood itself had been clotted and in the form of a dust. Isaak then moved father on, from Trent to Venice.

Before he came to Trent, Engel himself had lived with his Uncle Lazzari (Lazarus) for seven years in Castel Gaverdi in the region of Brescia. The latter was in correspondence with the Jew Rizardo of Brixen concerning blood; Rizardo had reported that he was selling blood and offered it.

The Jew Tobias, described in the Trent documents as a surgeon or physician (artis chirurgiae peritus) -- he also occasionally "transacted" usury business -- admitted after initial denials that years before, he had already bought dried blood, perhaps as much as a nut, from a Jewish merchant Abraham for a Rheinish Gulden. Samuel had certified the genuineness of the blood for him. Abraham carried the clotted blood in small pieces in a red container, presumably he had moved on to Feltro or Bassano. Finally, Tobias testified concerning a mysterious "distinguished" Jew from the island of Crete, who about six or seven years ago had stopped in Venice (404), around the same time that the Kaiser Friedrich III, followed by a great swarm of Jews, had arrived at Venice; these Jews had attached themselves to the imperial progress, in order to be able to procure for themselves untaxed wares which then, stowed away on the imperial wagons, had been smuggled across the border(32). All these Jews were also supplied with blood, with which a "powerful" Jew, who constantly went about with "a large quantity of Christian blood," had furnished them. For the rest, the man dealt in sugar, and was called "Sugar-Jew" on account of this. This Jew from Crete had worn a black robe, which, in the Greek fashion, reached down to his feet; the universally well-known Jew Hossar of Cologne with residence in Venice in particular had had much traffic with this Sugar-Jew.

Along the same lines was the testimony given -- completely independently and under conditions of having been separated [from the others] -- by the old Moses. When the judge asked the eighty-year-old Jew where, then, he always obtained the necessary blood, he answered that for the last ten years he had not needed to make any effort for it; he was no longer the father of the family. Earlier, he had lived for 30 years straight in Speyer. There he always got blood from an Alsace Jew, Isaak Rotpoch; but 50 years ago he had lived in Mainz, where be bought the required blood from the Cologne Jew Sveschint and had consumed it in the manner already mentioned (matzos, Easter wine). When he was asked how, then, in all the various places [in which he had lived] he was able to know that he really was getting "genuine," therefore non-Jewish blood, Moses also answered that the certificates of verification of the head Rabbis had confirmed it.

The Trent documents therefore unveil, besides the details of a crime committed with unimaginable cruelty, further monstrous facts:

1. There existed -- and naturally still exists! -- a "lawful" Jewish "trade" in non-Jewish blood, organized to the last detail, just as there has been for ages a Jewish slave trade.

2. There are dealers in blood, equipped with rabbinical certificates of verification and who have been expressly commissioned for that purpose.

In the Trent trial, not fewer than seven Jewish blood dealers appeared [in the record]: Bär (probably from Saxony), Isaak (from the region of Cologne), Rizardo (Brixen), Abraham, Rotpoch (Alsace), Sveschint (Cologne), and that frightful Jew from Crete, who can be described frankly as a wholesale dealer in blood.

Beyond this, we can fix the route of this blood trade on the basis of the trial reports.

In that 15th century, Venice was blossoming into a commercial city of the very first rank as trade center between Orient and Occident ; in the judgement of Petrarch, it was arising as the "emporium orbis" (world city of commerce), which the contemporary voice of Fabri lauded as "the most wonderful and most remarkable in the entire world" and a Jakob Burkhardt praised as "the jewel box of the world in its day," and a fabulous wealth was emerging, of industrious, bold traders and seafarers, who stood in striking contrast to the debt economy of the slothful doges -- good use of the latter circumstance was made by those vultures who are to be found everywhere where there is already a whiff of decay despite a high economic bloom: the Jews.

In no sense is it coincidental that just exactly the Venetian region of that time was a true Dorado of Jewish blood-murder -- in the year 1480 alone -- therefore, as soon as five years after an example had been made in Trent -- in this area not fewer than three (!) children were tortured most cruelly and ritually-slaughtered(33) (Portobuffole, Motta, Treviso). In spite of uprisings by the people, financial-political reasons moved the Venetian government repeatedly to allow the Jewry as such, consisting in great part of immigrating Oriental elements, to remain unmolested, so that the Jews could live in the completely justified belief that they might take risks, indeed, the Doge Pietro Mocenigo even during the Trent investigative proceedings had made out a sort of certificate of innocence for "his" Jews, (406)

while he attempted to interfere in the course of the proper hearing by means of declaring in a decree the Trent blood-murder to be a malicious rumor, took the Jews under his protection, and arranged that they should live unhindered in his land. This Jewish-protective decree, however, later had to be rescinded.

In these areas -- in the trial documents, aside from Trent, the names of Brescia, Feltro, Bessano occur -- there was not only trade with the treasures of the Orient and the products of European, and, in particular southern German industry; among comrades of the faith there existed in strict secrecy the blood trade as an internal Jewish affair, which took the same route as the rest of the goods: the ancient trade route across Trent, through the Etsch Valley. By the testimony of the Jewish physician Tobias, a whole swarm of Jews, who had smuggled their equally precious and mysterious property among the other wares, had once followed an imperial progress: the blood of non-Jews was transported in this manner by non-Jews themselves, and in addition, duty-free yet!

"In this 15th century, Man stood at the eve of the Renaissance, he invented printing, he discovered America; the arts and the sciences took an unsuspected upswing. Yet Europe was teeming with all sorts like Enselin (Lazarus), Rizard, Samuel, Moses, Isaak of Cologne, the Bear from Saxony, who their whole life long bought, sold, and used Christian blood. . ." (H. Desportes, p. 328).

The trade of Venice with the shores of the Near East made use of for its bases the ideal island bridges provided by Nature: Corfu -- Zante -- Crete -- Rhodes -- Cyprus. Upon all these islands, in a proportion which was increasing from century to century, Oriental Jews were encysted who, in constant contact with their racial comrades sitting on the crossroads of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt, had brought the booming trade -- at least as middlemen -- into dependency upon Jewish parasites and were able to pocket fabulous profits.

But from these times, the non-Jewish population on these islands never again was to know peace; its blood -- in the literal sense -- (407) is sucked out of it. In Crete sat the frightful shape of a blood dealer, dressed "in the Greek fashion," who also surfaced in Trent, supplied the Jews present there with blood and then vanished again. . .

Many centuries later, however, bloody riots broke out on Corfu, Zante, and Rhodes, because the population had become convinced as a result of the periodic disappearance of children in countless cases, that the Jewish murderer is still at work(34)! The ritual-murders of Damascus (1840) and Corfu (1891), which, of course, only became known from among the others by accident, while numberless others remained in eternal oblivion, threw a bright light upon these circumstances.

In the Orient, where human life in itself is already of little value, the trade in the blood of slaughtered non-Jews appears to be just another line of business; especially the harbor cities like Alexandria, Beirut, Smyrna, Constantinople, with the Quarters of Balata, Galata and Pera show blood-murders in great number, as we were able to determine, but even these can be only a miniscule fraction of those [ritual] crimes actually committed. "A very highly-placed man said to me, that of the Oriental diplomats, not one doubted that in the East, where these cases of murders of Christians are very easily concealed because there is no public opinion there, they are much more frequent than we think. . ."(35)

One year before the trial of Damascus, in 1839, at the customs office of Damascus, in a box intended for the Jew Aaron Stambuli -- thus the blood-murderer and blood dealer of Damascus -- a bottle with blood was discovered and confiscated; this was not given back, despite an offer of 10,000 Piasters from the protesting Jews. At his interrogation, the Jew in his consternation gave the confused statement that it was a custom with them to preserve(36) the blood of their great men(408). Concerning the further prosecution of the affair nothing more was known, according to Achille Laurent, the most that was known was that the head of Customs of Damascus died a sudden death!

This clumsy kind of dispatching [of blood] has not been allowed to prevail as general practice, in view of the shrewdness of its originators. The refined and always secure lodging of the blood was done just by introducing it into the mixture using minimal-sized doses of it.

The former Rabbi Noe Weinjung, born about 1765 in Kitchenev as the son of a Hassidic Rabbi, and, after his baptism under the name of Neophyte, living in the Cernika monastery in Bucharest(37), reports about his blood-practice in his confessions which were published first in the Romanian language in 1803, then, due to their importance, in Greek in 1834, and then in Italian in 1883, that one other cunning method of preservation and shipment consisted in keeping cotton or linen burned to ashes and soaked in the blood sealed in bottles in the treasury and secret drawers of the synagogue and constantly at the disposal of the rabbis, who took from it according to need or sent from it to the Jews of those lands which were under especially sharp police control or which nursed special mistrust or even hostility against the Jews due to bad experiences: the blood of the tortured victim was now able without peril to travel under a pharmaceutical label. . .

That a blood trade has existed on German soil until the most recent times, can be inferred from the events in Xanten, Polna, and Konitz. The foreign Jew, who appeared with a black leather bag around the time of the murder of little Jean in Xanten (29 June 1891) and just as suddenly vanished again, might have had the same function as that "crooked Jew" who on the day of the murder of the Hruza girl (409)(29 March 1899) was hurrying out of the apartment of the Polna Rabbi clutching a container of approximately six liters capacity packed in waxed canvas. Already in 1529, after the ritual-crime of Tyrnau, the blood was first hidden in the synagogue -- "on that account there was great rejoicing" -- before it was handed over to various Jewish middlemen for further distribution.

But even blood-dealing and blood-dealers are finally merely components of a System for which all of Jewry itself alone is to be made answerable before history: the extermination, conducted intentionally and consciously, of all that is non-Jewish.

That an important role of blood-doctrine and blood-practice belongs to the local center in this struggle for destruction, the synagogue, "the very own daughter of the Pharisaic school" (Rohling), does not need to be further proven after the expositions up to now.

The "President of the Court of Appeals of the Free City of Frankfurt and Envoy of the four Free Cities of Germany at the Bundestag, Dr. of Theology and Jurisprudence, J. F. Meyer, the learned and founding trustee," believed himself able to dismiss these things with the following witty remark: "But as concerns the alleged blood-thirst, this would have been been able to be amply satisfied for many centuries now without killing, in any bath or barber's room; but not even one Jew has been found to buy blood there. No one has ever seen a Jew sampling blood."(38)

In 1693, a woman at a cattle market offered for sale to some Jewish cattle dealers a bowl of blood, "because she knew that the Jews like to have blood from Christian children. . ." The Jews, however, were craftier than this efficient business woman, they indignantly raised an alarm, called the city patrol and had the woman taken away. Before the magistrate, she confessed that she had been trading out of poverty in order to get a few Groschen; "it truly is human blood, but not of (410) a child, but from a couple of soldiers who opened a vein for the sake of their health and were supposed to let the blood be carried away by flowing water. . ."Now because such was found to be the case after inquiry, the woman was released again with sharp warnings to abstain from such dealings in the future. . ."(39)

No, learned and founding trustee and Doctor of Jurisprudence and Theology, Jews buying liters of blood never have actually been seen to this day -- we could, of course, repeatedly pluck these peculiar blossoms in the imaginary world of those scholars!

But Moses Abu-el-Afieh spoke in Damascus of two kinds of blood that are pleasing to Yahweh, of which one is the blood of ritual-slaughter.

We know with what stamina the Jews and their comrades, in order to defang the charges which involve their use of blood, call upon the minutiae of directives of the Talmud and other Jewish codices, around which interpretations as nit-picking as they are obscure are wound like tendrils, and which are supposed to keep the children of Israel from contact with blood -- insofar as it is not a matter of sacrificial blood; Jewry has, in fact, ever felt an inner horror of this "unconsecrated" blood. Among one another, they wish to remain so clean of blood, that they do not even consume animal blood, and loathe even the blood which comes from the most minor wounds (e.g. blood from their gums on bread!). And yet -- here their moon-nature reveals itself -- they are the only people who conduct blood-politics, in the symbolic as well as the physical sense.

There is no contradiction in the fact that, for example, in the Old Testament the consumption of animal blood is forbidden by religious law under threat of "divine" punishment, which, as such, is grasped at by theologians over and over again for the "refutation" of the blood-accusation -- while the consumption of human blood is found to be forbidden nowhere, to say nothing of the rabbinical blood-doctrine. The Jews have the firm and subtle belief that social intercourse with other peoples, even the mere (411) gaze of an Akum (40), materially pollutes their blood! Their sharp and ruthless rabbinical intelligence found an equally subtle means millennia ago, by which they believed to be able to purify themselves and which was, for later centuries, transmitted orally for the sake of caution. Olden Asiatic physicians already were familiar with that natural law which says that like is to be healed by like [i.e., sympathetic magic]. In the mechanical world, one knows that like poles repel each other. This general law, adopted into Medicine, is followed exactly in homeopathic practice by use of small, refined, counter-doses: when one feels infected by a sickness, one partakes of the same substance thought to be causing the sickness, and indeed, a dose in a specific and absolute purity and in minute amounts. The most modern Medicine proves satisfactorily the profound law of Nature, that like is healed by like, and indeed what is more striking, the smaller the dose is, the better the results.

In the most refined dosing, non-Jewish blood, for example, enters into the Easter baking of the Jews, the matzos. Regarding the meal [i.e., in the sense of the grain from which bread is baked] of sacrifice, the Rabbi Samuel of Trent stated in 1475 that the Jewish father of the family would mingle some portion of the blood from a non-Jewish child into the dough at the preparation of the matzos; the size of a lentil seed would suffice! The Head Rabbi of Damascus personally baked the Easter breads intermingled with the non-Jewish sacrificial blood and sent them for "purification" in all direction to his co-religionists.

But this blood is especially effective, according to Jewish teaching, if it has been obtained under circumstances of unimaginably sadistic tortures and sufferings for the non-Jewish victim! "The matzos are prepared as they must be," said Samuel at their distribution in Trent, and those present understood what was meant by that. . .

Lazarus Goldschmidt cites a passage of the Talmud tract of the Schabbath, where an "emperor" asks the Rabbi Joshua ben Chananya why the Jewish Sabbath meal has such a pleasant aroma. The Rabbi answers: "Because we (412) have a spice by the name of Sabbath that we put in!" The "emperor" also wants to have some of it, but the Rabbi says: "It is only proper for them who observe the Sabbath. Since you do not do this, it would do you no good." What kind of special spice is this, this "spice named Sabbath," which "is of use to" only the Jews??

Under the date 19 January 1882, in the Archives Israélites, there is offered vin cascher ("kosher wine") with the express certificate of the Head Rabbi -- we are reminded of the "certificates" of the Trent blood-dealers!; on 2 March, again, "kosher wine" (vin cascher) for the Easter feast. On 16 March 1882 we read, printed in a list of other notices: "Spices for Jewish Easter use: Madame Haas guarantees unleavened bread (matzos)." To deceive the reader unfamiliar with these matters, the word kosher is written in various ways: coscer, causcher, cascher, cascer, kascer, koscer, etc.

The Almanach zum Gebrauch der Israeliten [Almanac for the Use of the Israelites] (appeared at the time from Blum, Paris, 11, rue des Posiers) is filled with similar notices. Several pastry bakers supply the "customary Easter bread for the Pessach feast," but another says that he alone has the authority to offer everything that is necessary for the celebration of Pessach -- And in the Orient, of course, there was and is the notorious mossa guésira (blood-matzos) next to the "customary" mossa! These concordances are amazing(41).

Why do these things bear the certificates of the rabbis, and why not the "certificate of quality" of the corresponding experts, thus the bakers and vintners, if, according to Jewish opinion, this is supposed to be such a harmless matter?

The Jews of our day, therefore, in confidence of the ignorance of non-Jewish humanity, sell in open public, their ritual Pessach and Purim breads and wines, furnished with the blood-certifications of their rabbis, exactly as they were accustomed to do in the Middle Ages!

We now understand Heine better, when he said of his (413) racial comrades: ". . .in all other ways they now still are as they were in the Middle Ages, a wandering mystery. . ."

On 30 March 1882 the same Archives Israélites warned the "faithful" that the "religious" Pessach prescriptions were of extreme importance and one ought not to neglect even one of them. The preparation of the matzos "demands scrupulous care," the women should go off during their work. "The scrupulous care, which is required here, the omission of not even one Pessach prescription, the removal of the women -- compare with the documents of the Trent trial -- makes one ponder. . .The rabbinical blood-doctrine has existed as a secret teaching, the Trent trial bears witness to this; it probably exists still even today. . ." (42) That woman of the common people, who called out to her ward, Werner, who had taken on work in a Jewish house around the time of Easter in 1287: "Beware of the Jews, for Good Friday is approaching," and six centuries later the mother of the Xanten boy, who called out at the news of the death of her child, with a mother's unerring instinct: "It was the Jews!," are more valuable witnesses than all the learned "expert opinions" put together. "Volkes Stimme -- Gottes Stimme" ["The voice of the people -- the voice of God"] -- may say more than all those "Christian" theologians and their baptized and unbaptized Jewish relatives.

Blood is a special sap. It also has the effect, as Nature teaches at every turn, of establishing antipathy, hostility. Every hunter can tell countless examples from his own experience to illustrate that blood, which has flowed as a result of murder-lust or the lust for pleasure, prevents the friendly "scenting" of creature to creature. The blood that we take from creatures, separates us from them; the milk they they give to us, forms a bond with them. A cow which gives milk to a child and a Jew, who ritually slaughters it, are images which have stamped themselves in the blood of every people throughout the generations, as an inextinguishable instinct; a child runs to an old cow to caress it -- while he runs away crying from an old Jew. On the Lower Rhine, the girls say "when a Jew is in the village, (414) I do not go through the corn alone," and there were wealthy and independent peasants who, when one of these black-garbed beasts, one of the "fellow-citizens of the Mosaic faith" came through their village, became uneasy, like their cattle in the well-locked stall when a predator was lurking about. It is the eternal and natural "fear of the Jews" which the Galileans knew long ago.

That thousand-year-old Jewish hatred, that "great hatred," is not stoked and nourished anew by theoretical instruction alone, but, to a much more effective degree, still by -- blood.

But the final meaning of the blood sacrifice, its final interpretation, can perhaps best be given by only a Jew himself. A philosophical work appeared about sixteen years ago, entitled Die Wirklichkeit der Hebräer. Einleitung in das System des Pentateuch [The Reality of the Hebrews: Introduction into the System of the Pentateuch], by the Jew Oskar Goldberg. This extremely rare book was made available only to leading Jews and was anxiously protected. "If one works his way through this not simply written book, it falls open to him as if unveiled before his eyes," was the assessment of this book by Joh. v. Leers(43). Now Goldberg, one of those "Wise Men of Israel," expresses clearly that the purpose of the Jewish service of sacrifice is through blood, in which the biological power of life is contained, to keep Yahweh lastingly present. The purpose of the ritual is to hold the people together continually in struggle against the other Elohim (gods!), while at the same time suppressing the elements within the people which stem from the essence of the other Elohim (that is, the non-Jews!). "The commandments of purity . . .are derived for him (Goldberg) from this basic thought." (v. Leers).

By the judgement of v. Leers, the justification for ritual-slaughter, as of ritual-murder, can be derived from the arguments which Goldberg gives. . .

The presence of Yahweh, therefore, is conjured by black magic "in order to turn these powers against the other peoples in the wars of Yahweh. . ."

Jew Goldberg permits us -- to speak in the words of his colleague Güdemann (44) -- (415) a look into those "halls of the Jewish literature, to which, for those standing outside them, it is almost more difficult to gain access than many a princely court. . ."

Separation from all other peoples, state-within-a-state, fodder and corruption of the alien blood and final reunification among themselves, that is the unextinguishable impulse and thought of the Jew, not to be rinsed away by baptismal water. Hostility between their own blood and that of the rest of the world! "And I shall put enmity between your seed and their seed. . ."

The blood of the non-Jew rises up against the fanatic blood-politics of the Jews. Germany has been intended by History to have the leading role in this mamouth struggle: morality struggles against immorality, heroism against criminality, light against darkness, and blood against blood!

The Jewish Question is not otherwise to be solved. Destiny seems to desire that each people which struggles with the Jews, ventures its best blood against Jewish blood, and, if it must, unto death.

Thus has it been for millennia -- so it is again today, only with the distinction that a Führer and rescuer has arisen: "In that I am resisting the Jew, I am struggling for the work of the Lord" (Adolf Hitler).

Translation of the Address Given before the Vice-King of Egypt (1)

May it please Your Highness, etc. After we in Europe heard of the accusations issued in Damascus against some Jews who belonged to Your Highness's subjects, and of the tortures and sufferings done to them in order to extract confessions, and because we know that our religion not only does not sanction the crime of which they are accused, but rather even teaches us most expressly to be horrified at the use of blood, we have been sent by our co-religionists in Europe to ask Your Highness for Justice. . .

We come here with the most sure conviction that Your Highness, of such great fame in Europe due to your bravery in the Field, your wisdom in the Council, and your tolerance toward all good subjects without distinction, will grant our request with your accustomed kindness. We come without hatred, without passion, merely with the upright desire of bringing the truth to light. Therefore our request goes out to Your Highness, to impart to us the authority to go to Damascus, and there to initiate such inquiries which will be able to lead to the obtaining of sufficient evidence in respect to those accusations which have brought the entire Jewish population of that city into suffering unheard of till now, and so that the results of such investigation may be officially confirmed by the Gouverneur of Damascus and presented to Your Highness. That moreover, Your Highness might facilitate for us the means for obtaining this information, as well as grant safe conduct for those persons who belong to our mission, and provide full security for all parties who have credentials; the permission to speak with and question the prisoners as often as necessary, and that the authority and permission of Your Highness will be enforced by means of a special Firman [an edict or decree], sent to the Gouverneur of Damascus and officially entered into the local archives and publicly read out in the streets there. May we add that the eyes of all of Europe are directed upon Your Highness, and that the granting of our request will gratify the entire civilized world. It is well known (420) that the prince who has attained such a great reputation, treasures justice even more highly. It is an homage to your genius, to your love of truth, your love of justice, which has caused this deputation of all the Israelites of the Earth to appeal to Your Highness with confidence, in the consciousness that this appeal can not have been made in vain.

Alexandria, 4 August 1840.

Moses Monetfiore

err Crémieux in Vienna(2)

Vienna (Beginning of December 1840).

Herr Crémieux has departed for Paris, heaped with tributes, and especially, naturally, with evidence of the participation of the local Israelite population. Prince Metternich, as has also been the case with several high statesmen, has received with honor the defender of injured and abused humanity , which always finds protection and the warmest sympathy in the humanitarianism of our principles of government, of whatever region or religion it may be. The community of Jews has arranged a banquet for him, in gratitude for the protection of its brothers in Beirut, and not many have been seen of equal magnificence. This took place in the Hotel of the Roman Emperor, comprised over 80 place settings, and the arrangement was designed by the women, who nevertheless declined to appear there themselves.

Before the beginning of the meal, an address of thanks of the community, which expressed the sentiments of the rescued human dignity of their co-religionists, written on parchment and read aloud by the local teacher of religion, Dr. Manheimer, was delivered to him. This was enclosed in a golden case and so abundantly set with diamonds that its value is reckoned at 14,000 Florins. The address reads:

"The community of Israelites of Vienna, enspirited by the most moving sympathy for the sacred interests and rights of their people and faith, permeated by the innermost and deep respect and admiration for the noble men of word and deed, who have ventured themselves for these interests and rights and have proven themselves in the holy, glorious struggle, grasps with eagerness the opportunity which is offered to it here, to bear witness to its most (421) profound reverence and admiration for you, most highly respected sir, you, who have put yourself in the advance rank and have wrested the laurel of victory in this the struggle. If we admire all the more the gifts of words and the power of speech which God has lent you in fullness, the more complete and compelling its success and influence is, and God's Rule of Mercy is recognized in that He, in a time when intellect and talent have been elevated to a prevailing power, has let men arise in our ranks who are full of the divine spirit and know how to speak in truth and clarity with frankness and victorious power; if we, in a word, admire the talent which is the foundation of your reputation, and made you the equal as an orator and advocate to the most celebrated men of your class, so we revere and honor still more the noble attitude, the sacred zeal for the Right, which has guided you so fortunately thus far in the fulfillment and practice of your godly profession and in the application of these inestimable gifts of the spirit. You have been the representative of Right, when and where it was imperilled. You have bestowed your protection upon the powerful man, when good fortune abandoned him, and chivalrously taken on the mantle of fallen greatness. You have entered the lists for your co-religionists, when men wished to cast doubt upon their oaths and vows and thus throw suspicion upon the faith of Israel, and you have unburdened them of shame, annihilated the last trace of disgrace which still attached to them, in the nation where all barriers had been opened to them, yet prejudice was yet unconquered, where property and law, office and dignity had been granted and conceded to the Jew, yet doubt and suspicion of his lawfulness and loyalty had not been able to be eliminated and overcome. You have saved their honor and shown that religion began with Abraham and his tribe, which first raised its hand up to Almighty God, who has created Heaven and Earth, who fills the world and placed firmly upon it the pillars of the law, of justice and morality. You have now crowned these noble efforts, revered Sir, and everlastingly entered your name in the annals of the history of our people, which is as old as the history of the world, by chivalrously and fraternally entering the lists for the unfortunate victims in the battle against tyranny and religious frenzy, whose frightful fate was filling not only all the tribes of Israel, but also all the men of nobility and good will in the entire world with horror and terror. You left hearth and home, as the prophets of ancient times once did, traveled across the sea into that old land of Egypt, where plagues rage and war and discord threaten life, you have spoken before the powerful for your people and their faith, and you spoke as Moses once did to Pharaoh: 'Let go the sons of my people, who are in chains, that they may serve me!' You have broken the chains from the hands of those in bondage, you have rescued the imprisoned from out of their captivity -- as the prophet (422) described it, a godly calling. You have returned those who were outcast to free and unbound life, you have held back the sword in its descent, which was hovering but a hair's breadth above their heads, and those whom you could not save, who departed the world under torture, and who have found their declaration of innocence and vindication in a higher world and before a more elevated seat of judgement than Man can establish. . .have God's blessing over you! You have fulfilled a divine commandment, which is the most sacred thing in Israel; You have fulfilled the commandment of Love. . .If the name Damascus, which is to be found listed on the first and most ancient pages of our history, has again in most recent days attained a gloomy fame and leaves behind memories which for us are as unforgettable as they are painful, so, along with it, the names of the noble fighters, who have brought an end to the struggle and have wrested the chains from those in bondage and brought the tormented to freedom, will be as immortal and unforgettable. The self-reliance we have won again, and the joyful consciousness that wherever Israel is in need and distress, and its name shamed and its faith ostracized, God awakens for it its heroes and fighters from out of its own midst -- that consoles us for the painful experience which we have recently had, and which we had never expected in our century. With these sentiments we greet you as one of the champions in the holy struggle. And if our voices do not reach so far that they might also reach your noble comrade-in-arms, the high-hearted Sir Moses Montefiore, toward whom we have the same admiration, may this confession [of faith, admiration, etc.], which is the first that you have received on German soil, be a testimonial for you of the esteem and recognition which your efforts and exertions have found among your German co-religionists. We say to you, in the words of the Scriptures: Stride forth vigorously and courageously upon the trodden path -- it shall be your glory and your honor!"

At this juncture, Herr Crémieux, moved by this expression of gratitude, arose and gave an improvised speech in the French language, which, due to the beautiful themes which are the basis of its contents and the recognition which the speaker expresses for humane principles, deserves to be more universally known:

"Gentlemen, I am greatly moved, you understand this and will not wonder if words fail me to express my thoughts. I was unable to hold back my tears at the sight of this precious empathy of my co-religionists, of the immeasurable reward of such a simple, such a natural action. I am an attorney and saw to saving the unfortunate; I am a Jew and saw to fighting religious persecution; I am a human being and saw to crushing [the use of] barbaric torture; was I allowed to hesitate without committing a crime? I did my duty and such a reward! The Israelites surround me (423) on my journey as in an endless triumphal procession. In Corfu I was received with acclamations and by wishes for good fortune; in Trieste I was surrounded by the sweetest, most touching sympathy; in Venice the heartiest festivals were duplicated for my sake; here, at last, my heart is succumbing to the feelings with which you have intoxicated it. I have, you tell me, carried on the sacred matter of the emancipation of the Jews before the law courts and the press; but indeed, I was defending my own hearth, and the principle of the freedom of worship, the great, noble principle which ties Heaven to the Earth, in that it permits each human being to offer to God the homage of his love according to his own belief. I took up my pen when the slanderers spread their poison against the Jewish religion, I called upon all the sympathies of noble persons to assist me; but I felt the strength of the Good, the Right and energy of soul; would not my silence have been an unworthy cowardice? I have defied the personal danger with which fanatical hatred and a murderous atmosphere wanted to threaten me. Having stood upright, I did not think of this danger; I would have answered him who would have wanted to frighten me: Death is everywhere, but fortunate is he who seeks a great death! Our mission has been crowned with success; the chains have fallen; the prisons have opened [their doors] to the tortured, their families have been restored to those who were in flight. But our cause was such a righteous one, and our right was so great! I have also founded schools in the Orient for the poor children who have been abandoned until now. But with this, I have only the merit of having understood your thoughts and have said to myself: it is good, that the Jews of the West unite with the Jews of the East through the bond of a sacred protection, whose consequences could be immeasurable for the cause of civilization and progress in the lands of fanaticism and ignorance.

What do they, who persecute us with their bitter hatred, want with their foolish prejudices? Why do they reawaken, in this century of philosophy and enlightenment, those wretched slanders of the Middle Ages and the ridiculous superstitions of crude times? Do not they, who, in so many countries, still stand outside the law of the peoples among whom they live, possess all the virtues of free men, when they demonstrate such explicit, such moving, such unanimous gratitude toward those who demand for them the same common rights and social freedom? And is not the sympathy for the maliciously persecuted brothers, which was suddenly awakened, as if by an electric shock at every point on Earth, a great virtue? Does not this Jewish population, whose heart is so full of the fine feelings of love of relatives, deserve to live among other men and to have equal standing with them? What virtue do we lack. . .the love of country?

(424) We French Israelites, we citizens of a free country, which has given us a fatherland, our enthusiasm is intensified in that feeling which founds a people and makes it great, and you, gentlemen, who only can dimly know that [feeling of] country, since country is the equality of rights and duties, are you not all prepared to shed your purest blood for the happiness of the ground upon which you see the light? Ach, you shall attain it, gentlemen, one day you shall obtain this precious fatherland, this life-within-life! And those, who will be able to call you their fellow- citizens, will see whether your hearts are not at one with their hearts. Indeed, Jews of Austria, you will get the fatherland, for in that memorable affair of Damascus, Austria has shown that it knows no distinction of faith, when humanity speaks. Austria was first to extend a helping hand to the oppressed. Ach, its power did not reach so far as to be able to restore to life those whom torture had murdered, but it stepped between the executioner and those victims whose death had been decided; it noble-mindedly protested against the bloody proceedings. With joy I -- I, a Frenchman - call out in this capital city of the Austrian Imperial State: Honor to Austria! Honor to you, Prince Metternich, whose active as well as generous power covered like a shield those who were languishing beyond the sea; Honor to you -- you, who demonstrated a sublime spirit and an exalted philosophy in this final struggle of prejudice against reason, and unfolded the banner of humanity before the eyes of the world, without consideration for politics, which always is so foreign to justice! The General Consul Laurin, who found in his own heart an abhorrence for injustice and first brought the light of his clear reason and the dedication of his noble heart into this bloody drama, has also shown himself to be worthy of you. . . Honor also to Merlato, who struggled even to the final day at the scene of the horrible executions(3), and did not fear to unveil all secrets of this work of darkness, and with tireless zeal opened himself to the ideas of the General Consul. Let his name be for us a revered name!

Gentlemen, the Press, too, has forcefully supported us, the German, the French, the English Press; it dealt the most powerful blows to religious intolerance. The Press has its torches: the light terrifies fanaticism and persecution. . .the martyrs of Damascus will be our last martyrs. The West is making incursions into the East with its civilization, not merely in matters of political questions, but also in social issues, as a guarantee of the future of the peoples. Thank you, gentlemen, a thousand thanks for (425) this precious pledge of your esteem, your friendship! I shall keep it as a precious treasure, as a legacy for my beloved son. . ."

The cheering of those present was boundless, and with great enthusiasm toasts were offered to the Kaiser and the whole Imperial House, to the Prince State Chancellor, to the Consuls of the Great Powers, etc., who rendered assistance in this affair of justice and humanity, and the celebration was inscribed inextinguishably in the emotions of the Israelites by its many significant features.

Fürth, 4 December 1840(4).

At the arrival of Herr Crémieux on 2 December in Nuremberg, a deputation of the local Israelites left to show him honor and to invite him to a celebratory meal. The representatives of the local congregation solemnly received him. At the banquet the Rabbi, Dr. Löwi, gave an address of thanks, which he delivered to him, together with the book of Esther, in a beautiful manuscript in an antique case. . .

Frankfurt a. M.

Manifold evidence of respect and reverence for the celebrated advocate of innocence and advancer of civilization was also produced at this local setting. . . On 7 December Herr. C. Kann assembled a close circle of friends and admirers of the celebrated man at a dinner at the end of which Herr Crémieux visited the lodge of the Frankfurt Eagle (5) and attended till late at night the hurriedly arranged supper. The Society of the Frankfurt Eagle delivered to him 1000 florins as a voluntary contribution for the Crémieux School in Cahira. . .Herr Crémieux also honored our Bürgerschule [a school roughly equivalent to grades 5 - 10] and Realschule [upper grade elementary school] with his presence and attended some classes. Finally, a fine banquet should be mentioned, which the Society of the Rising Dawn arranged to (426) celebrate the noble fighter and at which about 100 guests were present. In the gloriously decorated hall memorial tablets were displayed, which detailed the main events of his dynamic life.. . . With genuine friendliness, many accompanied the celebrated man to his quarters, in front of which a brilliant serenade by the members of the Society of the Frankfurt Eagle was prepared in his honor.

Protocol II of 22 May 1882, 1:15 A.M. in Nagyfalu.

Interrogation by the Examining Magistrate Bary.

"Did you know the daughter, Esther, of Frau Johann Solymosi? If so, what did she look like?"

"I knew Esther Solymosi by sight, but I only knew that she was the daughter of Mrs. Solymosi. The other daughter, Sophie, I knew well. The younger sister I only knew by sight, she looked almost like the older sister, only she was smaller."

"How was Esther dressed at the time and did she have something in her hand when she came in?"

"She had a worn-out white scarf on her head, a red scarf at her neck and she was wearing a light-colored jacket and a blue skirt. She had an old yellow scarf in her hand; my father asked her where she had been and what she was carrying in the scarf, and she said that she had been in the Kohlmayer arcade where Frau Andreas Huri, whom she was working for, had sent her to get paint."

"Did your parents know Esther?"

"They knew her, because they spoke to her then by name, and I also knew that she was called Esther; until then I only knew that she was the daughter of Mrs. Solymosi and was Sophie's sister and that she was working for Mrs. Huri."

"What happened with Esther on the Saturday on which she came into your father's apartment?"

"At my father's request she took the candlesticks from the table and put them on the chest, after she got up on a chair."

"Who was in the room at the time?"

"My father, my mother, my little Geschwister [= siblings, which would be an unlikely term for English speakers to use to indicate their own collective brother/s and/or sister/s, but it is a very common noun in German] Samu and Rószi and I."

"What happened with Esther next?"

"After she had put the five candlesticks on top of the chest, a Jewish beggar came in, who had already come to us the day before (427) with two women beggars and a two- to three-year-old boy, and they were all staying with us till Sunday. What the beggar's name was I don't know, I only know that he came from Lök and was tall, had a black beard and was tan: he said to Esther that she should go with him into the synagogue and when she refused, he grabbed her by the hand and led her out of our apartment."

"Did you and your parents follow the beggar?"

"My parents stayed in the room, but I went after the beggar and saw how he went into the synagogue with Esther. After a while I heard screaming in the synagogue, I heard three or four cries for help, just like if someone had called out: 'Help, people!' Then I ran to the synagogue door but this was locked; now I looked through the keyhole, and since the key wasn't in the hole, I saw that Esther was lying on the floor in her slip while her clothes were on the table. The foreign ritual-slaughterers from Téglás and Tarczal and the beggar were holding the girl pressed to the floor and our present ritual-slaughterer Salomon Schwarz was cutting her in the neck with a knife that was somewhat longer and much broader than a regular table knife (6). He made a cut in her neck, and then the two foreign schächter and the beggar lifted the girl up, but Salomon Schwarz held two bloody bowls, one after the other, under her head, in them the blood was flowing, which they poured into a large pan. Then they dressed the girl again. While they were dressing the girl, four other Jews came out of the inner part of the synagogue: Samuel Lustig, Abraham Braun, Lazar Weißstein, and Adolf Junger and stood around the body of the girl. Now I went back to the room and told my parents what I'd seen. They had just sat down at the table and begun eating; when I started to tell them about it, my mother said to me that I should be quiet."

"Did you still go back then into the synagogue?"

"No, I ate with my parents at noon, until after about an hour, when the Jewish beggar came out of the synagogue and said to me that I should lock the door. I went out and saw how the schächter from Téglás and Tarczal and Salomon Schwarz were leaving. I found the key in the window of the hall, and without looking into the inner part of the synagogue, I came back out and locked the outer door. In the hall I didn't see the body of Esther any longer, nor did I see any traces of blood any more."

"Where then did you carry the key?"

"Into the room and hung it on a nail."

"How long did the key hang there?"

"Until five in the afternoon, then I opened the door again; at first, (428) the three schächter and the former schächter Emanuel Taub, Hermann Rodenberg, and Jacob Süßmann came. Later, several more came, whose names I can no longer recall."

"Where was the body of Esther hidden?"

"That, I don't know"

"Why didn't you tell all this at your first interrogation?"

"I was afraid that my father would kick me out of the house then."

"What made you make a confession yesterday, when you came to Nagyfalu with the Security Commissar and another gentleman? Did anyone threaten you or force you to do this?"

"No one threatened me, no one forced me, and I spoke the truth out of my own free will, and just as I've now told it."

Read, certified, and signed.

Moritz Scharf Joseph Bary, Examining Magistrate

From the Speech of the Deputy Rickert in the Prussian House of Deputies on 9 February 1892(7)

Gentlemen, it is my intention to direct the attention of the honorable House and of the Minister of Justice to an affair which for months has aroused a portion of the populace to a high degree. I mean the Buschhoff case, the Xanten boy-murder.

On 29 June, at six o'clock in the evening, the five-year-old boy Hegmann was murdered in the byre [cowshed] of the town councilor Küppers; the body of the small boy was found in a condition, so it was said, which created the suspicion that someone who was familiar with the business of ritual-slaughtering had to have committed this murder, since the cut, as they said, had been made skillfully and professionally. The boy was empty of blood. A lively excitement immediately arose in the town of Xanten, which probably has between 3000 and 4000 inhabitants, and one part of the populace pointed at one man whom it held to be guilty -- at the Jewish schächter Buschhoff, living in the vicinity of that byre.

Gentlemen, since those days the Jewish members of this community have had to endure a difficult time; every means was brought to bear to agitate against them. They were even ready to characterize this murder as a ritual-murder, and if I have been informed correctly, (429) the same things have also been said to arouse the populace in Xanten that had been used earlier in Corfu.

The anti-Semitic press has now not only cast suspicion in a despicable manner upon the State's Attorney and the examining judge, but also upon the Minister of Justice and the Minister of the Interior. I do not believe that any purpose is served by going into detail on this, at least for the time being. Should the matter perhaps be taken up by the other side, then I am prepared to offer a list of these things which have outraged me. For example, congenial relations between the defense attorney of the main defendant and the examining judge have been alleged to be the reason that the case is being handled slowly and carelessly. These are unprecedented insinuations against these men, who have surely acted only in the fulfillment of the duties of their office.

To show you how far this matter has gone, I want to produce for you two documents. After the release of Buschhoff, they were demanding that he be rearrested. In what sense these people want to see the law practiced in Prussia emerges from the following passage of the Neue Deutsche Zeitung [New German Times]. There is the focal point of anti-Semitism and also the focal point of these insinuations. In this periodical we find the following sentence, among others:

'But if he (Buschhoff) is guilty -- why do they release him? Are there, perhaps, relationships behind this which are even darker than the murder of an innocent child? What does it matter, whether Buschhoff and family sit in investigative custody for four or five weeks longer yet, if afterwards the releasing, guilt-denying verdict is conceded to them by the jury, while they remain afflicted with suspicion for the rest of their lives?'

What do you think, gentlemen? -- That's called the administration of justice! Of course, when that is read abroad, that a newspaper dares to say such things -- what are they to think of our administration of justice?". . . Rickert complains that even the Kaiser is "disturbed." "Gentlemen, I believe that the brazenness with which they have drawn the highest of all persons into this pending investigation without any grounds whatsoever, deserves the same. These gentlemen are becoming bolder day by day -- not to use another expression!

Now in conclusion, gentlemen, one more main point, that is, the question of ritual-murder! This silly fairy-tale of ritual-murder, which reaches back into the times of the dark Middle Ages, when the Enlightenment was not yet so far [developed], and even farther back, this question is being revived here in this manner by the most distinguished organ of the conservative party! Has this organ (Kreuzzeitung), then, no sensitivity for the fact that this foolish fairy-tale no longer suits the present day?

(430) Not only did Bishop Kopp in the year 1882 (Tisza-Eszlár!) declare ritual-murder to be an outrageous untruth, there were also prominent popes, the supreme shepherds of the Catholic Church, who also entered the lists against it in writing and in speech in earlier centuries when the enlightenment of the people had not advanced so far and men were not as armored against such tales as they are today. I have here before me that memorable letter from Cardinal Ganganelli, who in the year 1759, when the Polish Jews were accused of ritual-murder (laughter from the Right) -- I do not know what is so funny about this to the gentlemen -- when the Polish Jews were accused, explicitly protested against it and with the weapons of his scholarship, which encompassed broad areas, proved that it was merely a fairy-tale, which must be rejected. . ."

Rickert then complained about an article in the Kreuzzeitung: "No, gentlemen, such weapons are not suitable in the 19th century, whose end we are approaching; these are not the weapons of Christian charity or of tolerance; nor are they the weapons of the constitution or of the law. The Jews in our State are not guests, as the Kreuzzeitung says, but on the contrary, fellow citizens with equal rights, and woe unto him who lays a hand upon these rights in a flagrant manner!" (Vigorous "bravo!" from the left.)

Letter of Rohling to the Court at Cleves.

To the Royal Criminal Court

at Cleves.

Your Honor!

The well-known Straßburg Professor, Dr. Nöldeke, along with the inclusion of my person before your forum, has rendered an expert opinion concerning ritual-murder by the Jews.

Conscience and honor force me to protest against this expert opinion. Professor Nöldeke terms it frivolous, when over and over again it is repeated that Jews require the use of Christian blood. He claims to be able to say "with tolerable certainty" that nothing about this is contained in the Talmud; also, according to his opinion, nothing in the Sefer halkutim and in the Zohar suggests it. Delitzsch, according to Herr Nöldeke, is supposed to have most definitely disproved the blood-accusation and my old friend Bickell to have declared it to be a hoax.

I find it strange that Professor Nöldeke charges those who think differently with frivolity, while he himself (431) lays claim to only a "tolerable" certainty for himself. As for Delitzsche, he, like Nöldeke himself was refuted by the work by Victor concerning the Rohling/Bloch trial, which appeared in two editions published by Fritsch in Leipzig in 1887, without a defense following from those involved. As for Professor Bickell, he never stated that the blood-accusation was a hoax, but on the contrary, he agreed with me that history fully justifies these accusations, because it reports numerous murders which were forensically established.

Eisenmenger also points to these facts, although rabbinical textual evidence and documentary proofs were not available to him. Concerning some texts of this type Professor Bickell was also of another opinion from my own, although he later withdrew an earlier statement about the impossibility of my idea, and Professor Nöldeke would have been able to know all of this from Victor's work, which was publicly available since 1887.

If the facts of history are not to be denied, it is well understood that despite the expurgation of certain rabbinical works, indeed there are texts still existing here and there, which hint at the subject, and contain allusions which, in spite of every editorial precaution, speak very plainly in the light of historical events. But as superfluous as texts of that sort are in the face of the historical records, and therefore, if one desires, can be left to the academic exercises of the philologists, I for my part find what others always say, that the Talmud even in expurgated editions suggests the phenomenon, while the Sefer halkutim and Zohar speak more definably, as is explained in my work Polemik und Menschenopfer des Rabbinismus [Polemics and Human Sacrifice of the Rabbinate] (Paderborn, pub. Schröder, 1883). This explanation is still completely convincing to me today, and if I do not respond to private publications of the newspapers and brochures, like Strack's Blutaberglaube [Blood-Superstition], this is because the secular authority, to which I am subject, desires the end of the Jewish controversy.

But after my sacred conviction was stigmatized before the Court as a frivolity, I held it to be my duty to make known to you this, which stands before you: in the face of death and of my eternal Judge, I cannot speak otherwise and must state:

that the blood-accusation is the truth!

With great respect

signed, Canon Doctor of Theology and Philosophy, A. Rohling, Professor of Hebrew Antiquities at the Royal and Imperial German University in Prague.

Prague, 10 July 1892.

From the Speech of the Czech Attorney Dr. Baxa before the Jury Court in Kuttenberg(8).

Dr. Baxa first explained that the compensation for costs for the poor mother of the murdered girl was unimportant. But the mother had a right to demand that she learn why her daughter was murdered, why she had been killed in this frightful manner!

"Let us go at once through all the motives which could come into consideration here; she had no enemy, she was devout and kind and honest. A murder for revenge, therefore, is not a possibility. The medical findings showed that the girl was untouched and remained so. A lust-murder therefore did not occur. A robbery-murder, perhaps? The murdered girl owned nothing, and what she did possess was found with her. What, then, was the motive for this frightful act? So the mother asks herself over and over again anew, why did her daughter, on a well-travelled way, on a bright clear day, have to die such a terrible death?

Now, gentlemen of the jury! The perpetrators, as in a whole series of cases which have preceded it, counted upon succeeding in not being discovered this time, too. But the Bible has ever said, that at the commission of the crime of murder, the blood of the victim cried unto Heaven. (Great commotion [in the courtroom].) But here, indeed, the blood was unable to cry unto Heaven, for the blood had disappeared! But the body speaks to Heaven in a terribly mysterious language, yet we understood this language and we finally succeeded in lifting the darkness that was supposed to be spread over it.

We were in a position to find the body in time, and from all this we could tell the mother how her daughter was killed. (Great commotion.) You know, gentlemen of the jury, how the doctors testified yesterday. You have heard how the unfortunate girl was strangled, how she was rendered unconscious with blows from a stone, and how the fatal cut was inflicted. That, gentlemen, says everything. If it was only a matter, for the murderers, of killing the girl, they need only, of course, have tightened the rope a moment longer. And consider how many pieces of evidence of [their] guilt they would thereby not have supplied. They would have shed no blood, they would have been finished all the sooner. But it was not the life of this girl that they wanted, but something (433) different. Let us think about the last hour of this unfortunate victim.

We think of how the rope was thrown around her neck, how three men suddenly bent over her, how they struck her on the head, ripped off the clothes from her body with terrible force, how she, perhaps, in the beginning, believing that this was an assault upon her honor [i.e., virginity], suddenly had to see how the knife shone, that terrible instrument in the hand of one of the men, how they prepared everything for the horrible ritual-slaughtering, how they inclined her head to the side, how she sees now, for the first time, what they intend to do with her, how the whole terrible truth of that for which she has been selected becomes clear to her -- and, gentlemen of the jury, you will agree with me, that this girl is a martyr. Gentlemen! We have never seen such a case. Yesterday you listened to the expert opinion of the physicians. Is there still need of proof that the murderers did not want the life of this girl, but rather wanted her blood alone? (Powerful excitement.) That is no longer debatable! From out of the courtroom of the Kuttenberg circuit court today, yonder into all Gaue, it is shouted that among human society live men who demand the blood of their fellow men! We shrink from this. We defend ourselves against these horrible thoughts, our emotions struggle against it, against this frightful secret, guarded for centuries.

But here the fact exists! The actual, irrefutable fact, and against what has been established here, no man on earth is able to prevail.

Now a second question forces itself on us. For what is the blood needed? And there, gentlemen, I say to you now: It is the responsibility of all Christian humanity to unwrap this secret. It is the duty, the highest duty of the authorities, that they elucidate why there are people among us who use the blood of of their neighbors for sinister purposes. We have the right to protect ourselves, indeed, we must defend ourselves against these people who require our blood. This terrible secret should finally be aired, it should finally be made clear who these people are, whether it is only a religious sect, or whether it is a race, we must defend ourselves and demand that the State proceed against them. We warn the world that it is seeking to preserve this secret still longer.

Look at the accused and the society in which he lives. Why does Hilsner lie so stubbornly, why is he supported by his entire society? Hilsner knows very well that, if he confesses, the whole secret would come out, for it would all come out, whether it was one schächter or another who made this cut [in the victims's throat].

Therefore, why should we not help in discovering those who are complicit in this! I say (434) to you, that the present proceedings are not the end of the Polna murder affair. It is only the beginning of a new investigation, we are far from the end of it. We will seek, seek inexorably to find out who the other perpetrators were, we will find them, and then the whole Christian world will heave a sigh of relief, as if freed from a monstrous nightmare."

Dr. Baxa then stated all the circumstances which made the guilt of Hilsner beyond doubt, and said that the manner of the execution of the murder, the limitless brazenness with which it was performed, amounts to the conclusion that the perpetrators had to have gone to work with genuinely fanatic boldness, as if they believed that their crime would not come to light for all eternity. Dr. Baxa stated in conclusion that his conviction concerning the guilt of the accused stood rock-firm.

"In the name of justice and integrity, you must vote in the affirmative and you can vote with full conviction, and we will have taken a further great step forward along the road which we are resolved to follow. . ."

An Alliance for Solving the Konitz Murder

has formed in the city of Konitz. On 11 March 1900 the gymnasium student Ernst Winter, in the bloom of young manhood, was tortured to death by crazed murderers' hands in Konitz, and the horrible crime still awaits earthly punishment.

The public jury court proceedings held at Konitz in the days from 26 October until 10 November against the Masloff family on account of perjury has thrown a bright spotlight upon the dark affair, in that this trial went far beyond the parameters of a simple perjury trial and took on the shape of a sort of investigative procedure into the Winter murder case. It still seems possible that the mysterious murder will find solution and punishment.

This possibility is thanks to the selfless and tireless activity of some few men who, without sufficient financial means, but with the mustering of all their powers, have followed the tracks of the murder. But the enormous difficulties and obstacles which opposed every step toward the discovery of the murderer, could not be overcome by the zeal and energy of individuals.

(435) The whole of the German people, without distinction of party, has a pressing interest in seeing the strange darkness illuminated, which enshrouds this gruesome murder. The father of the murdered boy, the builder Winter in Prechlau, does not command the financial means to pursue on his own the existing tracks so far as to succeed in bringing about justice in capturing the murderer.

In the city of Konitz, within whose walls the murder was committed, an alliance has been formed from the ranks of respected citizens in the town and country, which has set itself the goal of contributing with all its powers to the solution of the murder and pursuing every lead regardless. This alliance addresses itself to all Germans of every party. Everyone should contribute according to his ability to the collection of a sufficient fund, which should be used, under the responsibility of the undersigned, for a proper pursuit of the leads of the murder.

We ask the newspapers of all political persuasions to promote our undertaking by repeated printing of this appeal, and we ask every German citizen to contribute his mite for this good cause.

Konitz, 24 November 1900.

Bönig, Catholic pastor

Hammer, Evangelical pastor

Gebauer, City Councilman and Member of the West Prussian Provincial Landtag

Heise, City Councilman

Klotz, City Councilman

Schultze, City Councilman

Schar, City Councilman

Stockebrand, City Councilman

Hilgendorff, Landstag Deputy and Reichstag Deputy

v. Parpatt, Member of the West Prussian Provincial Landtag

Osiander, Landtag Deputy

v. Gordon-Laskowitz, Member of the Prussian Herrenhaus [titled]

v. Nitykowski-Grellen, as above

Frh. v. Eckardstein, Rittergutsbesitzer [Baron]

From the Speech of the Deputy Liebermann von Sonnenberg in the 43rd Session of the German Reichstag of 7 February 1901.

President Count v. Ballestrem cedes the floor to the Reichstag Deputy Liebermann von Sonnenberg:

". . .In the Konitz case, we are not dealing with just the purely human sentiment of justice, which desires that there be an atonement for every crime, but with a matter of very far-ranging (436) significance. . .I wish to state with pure objectivity that large circles among our people, to which very educated people in comfortable circumstances belong in great numbers, have actually come to the point of view: nothing should come of this!

It's believed even in the country that the fear of the Jews even for us is already so great that even the state authorities are not permitted to undertake anything against Jewry. . .The desire to bring the German government as well into a relationship of dependency, surely is present. Indeed, one need only observe the storm which is presently raised against the Prussian Minister of Justice, because he opposed the plainly mad claims of the Jews and has denied that the fact of the examination having been passed ought to force the Minister to appoint any Jew desired as judge or to appoint him as a Notary. In the entire Jewish-Liberal press, the Minister is now harried and abused; he is blasted from every direction.

Jewry is also at work here according to an old proven method. Herr Rickert (9) need only look up the passages about the Jews in Rome, in Mommsen's Roman history, how they behaved if some governor in the provinces had irritated them, perhaps had been incorruptible. When such a man arrived in Rome after having been relieved of his post, then the alarm was sounded, the rabble stirred up against him, and every means tried to injure him and to make a new office impossible for him. I do not know how the Jewish campaign of agitation against the Herr Minister of Justice will end; perhaps there is also someone at hand as a replacement for him, who is not yet positioned properly (very good!).

The riots of the summer of the previous year (in Konitz) were instigated by Jewish agents provocateurs and agitators, or provoked by extreme Jewish impudence toward the populace (quite correct!). The case of the Jew Zander, for example, who threw a stone through the pane of his own window on the street, demonstrates this for Konitz. Gentlemen, the populace must be protected against such provocations!

But the Jews slip into the role of persecuted innocents at such riots, they scream about violence and they know how to make their screaming heard in very high places. Then troops -- which perhaps earlier had mostly been in place for the cordoning off of the city -- immediately march in on orders from the highest level, and then the saying comes true, that: 'in the presence of weapons the laws are silent,' even without a declaration of a state of siege and martial law. The entire population is overcome with consternation; the witnesses no longer dare (437) to testify openly and hold back their most important evidence. Thus they believe that they have finally laid to rest the story of the murder. . .In my view, however, the Konitz affair is not permitted to be the cause of a single party, the anti-Semitic party, but rather it must become the cause of all decent people in the entire German Fatherland. The Konitz Alliance for the solution of the murder of gymnasium student Winter (10) consists of people who, by virtue of their social position and by the entire conduct of their lives, can keep away any suspicion of their joining together merely out of virulent desires [for excitement, for Jew-baiting, etc.].

Gentlemen, the German people remained at peace when the wholly similar murder in Skurz found no punishment. The Criminal Commissar Hoeft, who has been the exemplar for the present inquiries of the Berlin Criminal Commissar in Konitz, had freed the Jew who was first accused and taken into custody and brought a Christian master butcher -- everything is repeated! -- before the jury court. The man had to be completely exonerated. And then the case was settled as far as the authorities were concerned. The anti-Semitic movement was not yet strong enough in Germany to interest the German people in the case, as is now the case, thank God. The blood-murder in Skurz has remained unsolved and unrequited to the present day. Neither has anyone heard that further investigations have taken place. When ten years later a similar blood-murder in Xanten excited the world, an exceedingly cunning means was employed to misdirect the case. A notorious individual, who had insinuated himself into the anti-Semitic party, went to Xanten on behalf of an anti-Semitic newspaper and wrote an untruthful brochure which was printed in good faith and earned the editors responsible harsh prison sentences. Thus it happened that the anti-Semitic press was unable to persist in its involvement, and this murder, too, remained unpunished.

Buschhoff, the schächter accused of the crime, was acquitted by the jury court in Cleves, not, perhaps, because they were convinced of his innocence, but rather -- as is not at all very well known -- because a subsidiary question regarding the charge of complicity had not been put, and the jurors considered the evidence insufficient to pronounce him guilty as the perpetrator.

But the Konitz blood-crime, the third such similar crime in Prussia within a period of six years, will not share the fate of Skurz and Xanten. The trials that are still underway, the trial of the Jew Moritz Levy for perjury, which in a few days (438) will play itself out in Konitz, the trial against the Staatsbürgerzeitung, in which 114 witnesses are heard, will see to it that the arousal of the people over the murder of the gymnasium student Winter does not come to rest. . .yet I have taken the precaution of never stopping in Konitz for 24 hours at a time. It is teeming with Jewish spies, and I did not want to involve myself without necessity in gossip, the defending against which would have made work for me and have cost me time. Thus, not the 'anti-Semitic General Staff, but rather a Jewish Confusion-sowing and Cover-up Committee was established in Konitz after the murder and is still at work there. All the disinformation which has gone out by means of the Jewish newspapers, which consists of pure inventions and which is dispersed into the world, originates with this Confusion- sowing and Cover-up Committee.

The most shameless thing of all, however, is attained in the recent insinuations against highly respected Christian men in Konitz, the District School Inspector Rohde, and the teacher Weichel, whom the Berlin newspapers describe as the murderers, based upon the simple face that house searches were recently carried out also at their residences. Both gentlemen live on a street, you see, where every house and apartment was being searched; clearly no exceptions could be made. Without there having been anything more to it than this simple fact, the Berlin papers reported not long ago that the teacher, Weichel, had already confessed to the murder. This was reported by telegraph from Konitz. This horrible insinuation then circulated through a large section of the Press! Likewise, accusations were disseminated in the most shameless manner by the Berlin and other Jewish papers, against the District School Inspector, Rhode. I would think then, that the authorities, the Ministry of Culture and Education and also the War Ministry -- since Herr Rhode is Captain d. L [des Landstags -- of the provincial parliament] and both gentlemen are on the Board of Directors of the Kriegerverein [Veteran's Association] -- that the supervising ministries should protect their officials and file ex officio charges against all the newspapers in question, so that the severely insulted men do not have to bear useless costs and trouble because of this. Many another important matter may yet result from this trial as well.

Out of sympathy for this House, I will omit today, at such a late hour, unrolling a list of the instances of disinformation which have been broadcast to the world from Konitz in the Jewish interest. I have a thick manuscript about this lying at my place. . .I will immediately respond to all disinformation speeches which have been made here concerning the Konitz case. All of the German people and probably the Reichstag as well would be in agreement with me in this, that in Konitz the leads ought finally to be pursued for once, (439) which up till now have not been pursued, after all other leads have been shown to be erroneous. . .It can only be a matter of complete indifference to us (?), to what purpose the blood of the victims in Skurz, Xanten, and Konitz was destined [to be put]. But the evidence cannot be denied, that the bodies or their parts in all three cases were discovered to be completely empty of blood, and in all three cases sound human reason can simply find no other motive for murder than that of obtaining the blood. I have also asked the Director of the slaughterhouse of Konitz, Herr Veterinarian Wendt, for his opinion. He gave me the following information: he has been directing the slaughterhouse for ten years, each year an average of 10,000 animals are killed there, some butchered, some ritually-slaughtered, therefore he has been able to observe the effects on 100,000 animals of butchering and of ritual-slaughtering, and he was able to assure me that he had never seen such a blood-drained piece of flesh as the body parts of Winter. . .(commotion). Quite amazingly, directly after the murder, five ritual-slaughterers left the area, first the Cantor, Hamburger from Schlochau and then the schächter Heymann from Konitz, of which the one is supposed to have made a million-dollar fortune in America, and the other have gone to Russian Poland. The Jewish ritual-slaughterer Fuchs, who comes from Russia, has gone back to Russia. . .The fact that Russian Jews were in Konitz, has been judicially established. . .

The Herr Deputy Stadthagen(11) has described the populace of West Prussia as being at an extraordinarily culturally low level. So that it is not much to be wondered at that such people would believe in ritual-murder. . .But the country populace of West Prussia stands tower-high in education above a category of people who come into consideration again, at the Konitz murder. I mean the Jewish population, which is streaming in to us from out of Russian Poland, out of Galicia, Romania, etc., and because of our legislation, unfortunately nothing can be done to prevent it." (12)


Table of Ritual-Murders Established in this Investigation (13)

Time Place Victim/s

419 Jewish Easter Imnestar boy

1144 Easter Norwich twelve-year-old William

1160 Easter Gloucester boy

1171 Easter Blois boy

1179 Easter Pontoise boy

1181 Easter London Robert (child)

1192 Easter Braisne "a Christian"

1220 Easter Weißenburg (Alsace) Heinrich (child)

1225 Munich small child

1235 Christmas Fulda five (5) sons of a miller

1235 December Erfurt child

1244 London boy